Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
Funded by The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy; Grant: 01MD19013D, Smart-MD Project, Digital Technologies
Pulmonary aspiration of acidic material (such as stomach acid) may produce an immediate primary injury caused by the chemical reaction of acid with lung parenchyma, and a later secondary injury as a result of the subsequent inflammatory response.
Pulmonary aspiration is often followed by bacterial pneumonia. Community-acquired aspiration pneumonia is usually caused by anaerobic bacteria, whereas hospital-acquired aspiration pneumonia is more often caused by mixed flora, including both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.
Normal surgical masks and N95 masks appear equivalent with respect to preventing respiratory infections.
A 2014 systematic review of clinical trials does not support using routine rapid viral testing to decrease antibiotic use for children in emergency departments. It is unclear if rapid viral testing in the emergency department for children with acute febrile respiratory infections reduces the rates of antibiotic use, blood testing, or urine testing. The relative risk reduction of chest x-ray utilization in children screened with rapid viral testing is 77% compared with controls. In 2013 researchers developed a breath tester that can promptly diagnose lung infections.
Respiratory disease is a common and significant cause of illness and death around the world. In the US, approximately 1 billion "common colds" occur each year. A study found that in 2010, there were approximately 6.8 million emergency department visits for respiratory disorders in the U.S. for patients under the age of 18. In 2012, respiratory conditions were the most frequent reasons for hospital stays among children.
In the UK, approximately 1 in 7 individuals are affected by some form of chronic lung disease, most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Respiratory diseases (including lung cancer) are responsible for over 10% of hospitalizations and over 16% of deaths in Canada.
In 2011, respiratory disease with ventilator support accounted for 93.3% of ICU utilization in the United States.
Pneumonia occurs in a variety of situations and treatment must vary according to the situation. It is classified as either community or hospital acquired depending on where the patient contracted the infection. It is life-threatening in the elderly or those who are immunocompromised. The most common treatment is antibiotics and these vary in their adverse effects and their effectiveness. Pneumonia is also the leading cause of death in children less than five years of age in low income countries. The most common cause of pneumonia is pneumococcal bacteria, "Streptococcus pneumoniae" accounts for 2/3 of bacteremic pneumonias. This is a dangerous type of lung infection with a mortality rate of around 25%.
For optimal management of a pneumonia patient, the following must be assessed: pneumonia severity (including treatment location, e.g., home, hospital or intensive care), identification of causative organism, analgesia of chest pain, the need for supplemental oxygen, physiotherapy, hydration, bronchodilators and possible complications of emphysema or lung abscess.
Pulmonary diseases may also impact newborns, such as pulmonary hyperplasia, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (usually preterm births), and infant respiratory distress syndrome,
Lower respiratory tract infections place a considerable strain on the health budget and are generally more serious than upper respiratory infections.
Bronchomalacia can best be described as a birth defect of the bronchus in the respiratory tract. Congenital malacia of the large airways is one of the few causes of irreversible airways obstruction in children, with symptoms varying from recurrent wheeze and recurrent lower airways infections to severe dyspnea and respiratory insufficiency. It may also be acquired later in life due to chronic or recurring inflammation resulting from infection or other airway disease.
Several studies found that healthcare-associated pneumonia is the second most common type of pneumonia, occurring less commonly than community-acquired pneumonia but more frequently than hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In a recent observational study, the rates for CAP, HCAP and HAP were 60%, 25% and 15% respectively. Patients with HCAP are older and more commonly have simultaneous health problems (such as previous stroke, heart failure and diabetes).
The number of residents in long term care facilities is expected to rise dramatically over the next 30 years. These older adults are known to develop pneumonia 10 times more than their community-dwelling peers, and hospital admittance rates are 30 times higher.
A bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a fistula between the pleural space and the lung. It can develop following Pneumonectomy, post traumatically, or with certain types of infection. It may also develop when large airways are in communication with the pleural space following a large pneumothorax or other loss of pleural negative pressure, especially during positive pressure mechanical ventilation. On imaging, the diagnosis is suspected indirectly on radiograph. Increased gas in the pneumonectomy operative bed, or new gas within a loculated effusion are highly suggestive of the diagnosis. Infectious causes include tuberculosis, "Actinomyces israelii", "Nocardia", and "Blastomyces dermatitidis". Malignancy and trauma can also result in the abnormal communication.
Conditions which commonly involve hemoptysis include bronchitis and pneumonia, lung cancers and tuberculosis. Other possible underlying causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis. Rarer causes include hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome), Goodpasture's syndrome, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. In children, hemoptysis is commonly caused by the presence of a foreign body in the airway. The condition can also result from over-anticoagulation from treatment by drugs such as warfarin.
Blood-laced mucus from the sinus or nose area can sometimes be misidentified as symptomatic of hemoptysis (such secretions can be a sign of nasal or sinus cancer, but also a sinus infection). Extensive non-respiratory injury can also cause one to cough up blood. Cardiac causes like congestive heart failure and mitral stenosis should be ruled out.
The origin of blood can be identified by observing its color. Bright-red, foamy blood comes from the respiratory tract, whereas dark-red, coffee-colored blood comes from the gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes hemoptysis may be rust-colored.
The most common cause of minor hemoptysis is bronchitis.
- Lung cancer, including both non-small cell lung carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma.
- Pulmonary edema
- Pulmonary embolism
- Foreign body aspiration and aspiration pneumonia
- Goodpasture's syndrome
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome)
- Pulmonary embolism
- Anticoagulant use
- Lung abscess
- Mitral stenosis
- Tropical eosinophilia
- Bleeding disorders
- Hughes-Stovin Syndrome and other variants of Behçet's disease
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of Esophagus
Among the factors contributing to contracting HAP are mechanical ventilation (ventilator-associated pneumonia), old age, decreased filtration of inspired air, intrinsic respiratory, neurologic, or other disease states that result in respiratory tract obstruction, trauma, (abdominal) surgery, medications, diminished lung volumes, or decreased clearance of secretions may diminish the defenses of the lung. Also, poor hand-washing and inadequate disinfection of respiratory devices cause cross-infection and are important factors.
Bronchomalacia is a term for weak cartilage in the walls of the bronchial tubes, often occurring in children under six months. Bronchomalacia means 'floppiness' of some part of the bronchi. Patients present with noisy breathing and/or wheezing. There is collapse of a main stem bronchus on exhalation. If the trachea is also involved the term tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) is used. If only the upper airway the trachea is involved it is called tracheomalacia (TM). There are two types of bronchomalacia. Primary bronchomalacia is due to a deficiency in the cartilaginous rings. Secondary bronchomalacia may occur by extrinsic compression from an enlarged vessel, a vascular ring or a bronchogenic cyst. Though uncommon, idiopathic (of unknown cause) tracheobronchomalacia has been described in older adults.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs. This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions. Hemoptysis is considered massive at . In such cases, there are always severe injuries. The primary danger comes from choking, rather than blood loss.
As with other chest injuries such as pulmonary contusion, hemothorax, and pneumothorax, pulmonary laceration can often be treated with just supplemental oxygen, ventilation, and drainage of fluids from the chest cavity. A thoracostomy tube can be used to remove blood and air from the chest cavity. About 5% of cases require surgery, called thoracotomy. Thoracotomy is especially likely to be needed if a lung fails to re-expand; if pneumothorax, bleeding, or coughing up blood persist; or in order to remove clotted blood from a hemothorax. Surgical treatment includes suturing, stapling, oversewing, and wedging out of the laceration. Occasionally, surgeons must perform a lobectomy, in which a lobe of the lung is removed, or a pneumonectomy, in which an entire lung is removed.
A pulmonary laceration can cause air to leak out of the lacerated lung and into the pleural space, if the laceration goes through to it. Pulmonary laceration invariably results in pneumothorax (due to torn airways), hemothorax (due to torn blood vessels), or a hemopneumothorax (with both blood and air in the chest cavity). Unlike hemothoraces that occur due to pulmonary contusion, those due to lung laceration may be large and long lasting. However, the lungs do not usually bleed very much because the blood vessels involved are small and the pressure within them is low. Therefore, pneumothorax is usually more of a problem than hemothorax. A pneumothorax may form or be turned into a tension pneumothorax by mechanical ventilation, which may force air out of the tear in the lung.
The laceration may also close up by itself, which can cause it to trap blood and potentially form a cyst or hematoma. Because the lung is elastic, the tear forms a round cyst called a "traumatic air cyst" that may be filled with air, blood, or both and that usually shrinks over a period of weeks or months. Lacerations that are filled with air are called pneumatoceles, and those that are filled with blood are called pulmonary hematomas. In some cases, both pneumatoceles and hematomas exist in the same injured lung. A pneumatocele can become enlarged, for example when the patient is mechanically ventilated or has acute respiratory distress syndrome, in which case it may not go away for months. Pulmonary hematomas take longer to heal than simple pneumatoceles and commonly leave the lungs scarred.
Over time, the walls of lung lacerations tend to grow thicker due to edema and bleeding at the edges.
Tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea.
Although the trachea is usually considered part of the lower respiratory tract, in ICD-10 tracheitis is classified under "acute upper respiratory infections".
TIF is a rare condition with a .7% frequency, and an mortality rate approaching 100% without surgical intervention. Immediate diagnosis and intervention of an TIF is critical for the surgical intervention success. 25-30% of TIF patients who reach the operating room survive. Recently, the incidence of TIF may have declined due to advances in tracheostomy tube technology and the introduction of the bedside percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT).
Bacterial tracheitis is a bacterial infection of the trachea and is capable of producing airway obstruction.
One of the most common causes is "Staphylococcus aureus" and often follows a recent viral upper respiratory infection. Bacterial tracheitis is a rare complication of influenza infection. It is the most serious in young children, possibly because of the relatively small size of the trachea that gets easily blocked by swelling. The most frequent sign is the rapid development of stridor. It is occasionally confused with croup.
If it is inflamed, a condition known as tracheitis can occur. In this condition there can be inflammation of the linings of the trachea. A condition called tracheo-bronchitis can be caused, when the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi swell. A collapsed trachea is formed as a result of defect in the cartilage, that makes the cartilage unable to support the trachea and results in dry hacking cough. In this condition there can be inflammation of the linings of the trachea. If the connective nerve tissues in the trachea degenerate it causes tracheomalacia. Infections to the trachea can cause tracheomegaly.
Clinically, the most serious and immediate complication is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which usually occurs within 24 h. Those with significant lower airway involvement may develop bacterial infection. Importantly, victims suffering body surface burn and smoke inhalation are the most susceptible. Thermal injury combined with inhalation injury compromises pulmonary function, producing microvascular hyperpermeability that leads to a significant increase in lung lymph flow and pulmonary edema. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 left many people with impaired lung function. A study of firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in the FDNY WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program, whose lung function was tested prior to 9/11, documented a steep decline in lung function in the first year after 9/11. A new study that includes a thousand additional workers shows that the declines have persisted over time. Prior to 9/11, 3% of firefighters had below-normal lung function, one year after 9/11 nearly 19% did, and six years later it stabilized at 13%. Ten to 14 days after acute exposure to some agents (e.g. ammonia, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury), some patients develop bronchiolitis obliterans progressing to ARDS. Bronchiolitis obliterans with organized pneumonia can ensue when granulation tissue accumulates in the terminal airways and alveolar ducts during the body's reparative process. A minority of these patients develop late pulmonary fibrosis. Also at enhanced risk are persons with co-morbidities. Several studies report that both aged persons and smokers are especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of inhalation injury.
Neonates with TEF or esophageal atresia are unable to feed properly. Once diagnosed, prompt surgery is required to allow the food intake. Some children do experience problems following TEF surgery; they can develop dysphagia and thoracic problems. Children with TEF can also be born with other abnormalities, most commonly those described in VACTERL association - a group of anomalies which often occur together, including heart, kidney and limb deformities. 6% of babies with TEF also have a laryngeal cleft.
There is low or very-low quality evidence that probiotics may be better than placebo in preventing acute URTIs. Vaccination against influenza viruses, adenoviruses, measles, rubella, "Streptococcus pneumoniae", "Haemophilus influenzae", diphtheria, "Bacillus anthracis", and "Bordetella pertussis" may prevent them from infecting the URT or reduce the severity of the infection.
Test articles passing muster in vitro can be evaluated in a number of in vivo models (usually in mice) of ALI including chlorine inhalation, intratracheal instillation of bleomycin and in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1) overexpressing transgenic mice exposed to high dose doxycycline. Acute exposure to high concentrations of chlorine gas induces pathological and functional changes in the lungs of rodents. Histological changes consist of epithelial necrosis and detachment, increase in the area of smooth muscle, epithelial regeneration and mucous cell hyperplasia. Most of these abnormalities resolve with time. Functional changes (increased RL and/or bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine) last for mean intervals of 3 and 7 days after exposure, but can persist up to 30 and 90 days, respectively. The functional changes are related to the overall abnormal airway epithelial damage and there is a significant correlation between RL and bronchoalveolar lavage ( BAL) neutrophilia. Bleomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic drug isolated in 1966 from the actinomycete Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin forms a complex with oxygen and metals such as Fe2+, leading to the production of oxygen radicals, DNA breaks, and ultimately cell death. Doxycycline driven overexpression of TGF β1 in the lungs of transgenic mice result in a time-dependent inflammatory response characterized by massive infiltration of F4/80+ monocytic/macrophage-like cells and a wave of apoptotic pulmonary cell death. Mice that survive this initial onslaught go on to demonstrate an increase in lung collagen content, and decreased lung compliance. A large animal model of ALI is the ovine model of body surface burn + heated smoke inhalation. It has been established that combined burn and smoke inhalation injury impairs hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), the vasoconstrictive response to hypoxia, thereby mismatching ventilation with perfusion. Gas exchange is affected by increases in the dispersion of both alveolar ventilation and cardiac output because bronchial and vascular functions are altered by injury-related factors, such as the effects of inflammatory mediators on airway and vascular smooth muscle tone. As a rule of thumb, all these models are characterized by high mortality, inflammation of the airways and pulmonary parenchyma, edema and flooding of the alveolar spaces by a proteinaceous exudate, sloughing of the airway and pulmonary epithelium, scarring and transition to airway and pulmonary remodeling.
Children have 2-9 viral respiratory illnesses per year. In 2013 18.8 billion cases of upper respiratory infections were reported. As of 2014, upper respiratory infections caused about 3,000 deaths down from 4,000 in 1990. In the United States, URIs are the most common infectious illness in the general population. URIs are the leading reasons for people missing work and school.