Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
Funded by The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy; Grant: 01MD19013D, Smart-MD Project, Digital Technologies
Numerous factors have been suggested and linked to a higher risk of acquiring the infection, inclusive of malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, absence of breastfeeding during the early stages of life, environmental pollution and overcrowding.
Mortality caused by HPIVs in developed regions of the world remains rare. Where mortality has occurred, it is principally in the three core risk groups (very young, elderly and immuno-compromised). Long term changes can however be associated with airway remodelling and are believed to be a significant cause of morbidity. The exact associations between HPIVs and diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still being investigated.
In developing regions of the world, the highest risk group in terms of mortality remains pre-school children. Mortality may be as a consequence of primary viral infection or secondary problems such as bacterial infection. Predispositions, such as malnutrition and other deficiencies may further elevate the chances of mortality associated with infection.
Overall, LRI's cause approximately 25–30% of total deaths in pre-school children in the developing world. HPIVs is believed to be associated with 10% of all LRI cases, thus remaining a significant cause of mortality.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis is not a commonly reported infection in humans, though most infections are mild and are often never diagnosed. Serological surveys suggest that approximately 1–5% of the population in the U.S. and Europe has antibodies to LCMV. The prevalence varies with the living conditions and exposure to mice, and it has been higher in the past due to lower standards of living. The island of Vir in Croatia is one of the biggest described endemic places of origin of LCMV in the world, with IFA testing having found LCMV antibodies in 36% of the population. Individuals with the highest risk of infection are laboratory personnel who handle rodents or infected cells. Temperature and time of year is also a critical factor that contributes to the number of LCMV infections, particularly during fall and winter when mice tend to move indoors. Approximately 10–20% of the cases in immunocompetent individuals are thought to progress to neurological disease, mainly as aseptic meningitis. The overall case fatality rate is less than 1% and people with complications, including meningitis, almost always recover completely. Rare cases of meningoencephalitis have also been reported. More severe disease is likely to occur in people who are immunosuppressed.
More than 50 infants with congenital LCMV infection have been reported worldwide. The probability that a woman will become infected after being exposed to rodents, the frequency with which LCMV crosses the placenta, and the likelihood of clinical signs among these infants are still poorly understood. In one study, antibodies to LCMV were detected in 0.8% of normal infants, 2.7% of infants with neurological signs and 30% of infants with hydrocephalus. In Argentina, no congenital LCMV infections were reported among 288 healthy mothers and their infants. However, one study found that two of 95 children in a home for people with severe mental disabilities had been infected with this virus. The prognosis for severely affected infants appears to be poor. In one series, 35% of infants diagnosed with congenital infections had died by the age of 21 months.
Transplant-acquired lymphocytic choriomeningitis proves to have a very high morbidity and mortality rate. In the three clusters reported in the U.S. from 2005 to 2010, nine of the ten infected recipients died. One donor had been infected from a recently acquired pet hamster while the sources of the virus in the other cases were unknown.
Patients infected in solid organ transplants have developed a severe fatal illness, starting within weeks of the transplant. In all reported cases, the initial symptoms included fever, lethargy, anorexia and leukopenia, and quickly progressed to multisystem organ failure, hepatic insufficiency or severe hepatitis, dysfunction of the transplanted organ, coagulopathy, hypoxia, multiple bacteremias and shock. Localized rash and diarrhea were also seen in some patients. Nearly all cases have been fatal.
In May 2005, four solid-organ transplant recipients contracted an illness that was later diagnosed as lymphocytic choriomeningitis. All received organs from a common donor, and within a month of transplantation, three of the four recipients had died as a result of the viral infection. Epidemiologic investigation traced the source to a pet hamster that the organ donor had recently purchased from a Rhode Island pet store. Similar cases occurred in Massachusetts in 2008, and Australia in 2013. Currently, there is not a LCMV infection test that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for organ donor screening. The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" advises health-care providers to "consider LCMV infection in patients with aseptic meningitis and encephalitis and in organ transplant recipients with unexplained fever, hepatitis, or multisystem organ failure."
Fetal infection is of most consequence as this can result in the birth of a persistently infected neonate. The effects of fetal infection with BVDV are dependent upon the stage of gestation at which the dam suffers acute infection.
BVDV infection of the dam prior to conception, and during the first 18 days of gestation, results in delayed conception and an increased calving to conception interval. Once the embryo is attached, infection from days 29–41 can result in embryonic infection and resultant embryonic death.
Infection of the dam from approximately day 30 of gestation until day 120 can result in immunotolerance and the birth of calves persistently infected with the virus.
BVDV infection between 80 and 150 days of gestation may be teratogenic, with the type of birth defect dependent upon the stage of fetal development at infection. Abortion may occur at any time during gestation. Infection after approximately day 120 can result in the birth of a normal fetus which is BVD antigen-negative and BVD antibody-positive. This occurs because the fetal immune system has developed, by this stage of gestation, and has the ability to recognise and fight off the invading virus, producing anti-BVD antibodies.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions)
attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Many viral infections of the central nervous system occur in seasonal peaks or as epidemics, whereas others, such as herpes simplex encephalitis, are sporadic. In endemic areas it is mostly a disease of children, but as the disease spreads to new regions, or nonimmune travelers visit endemic regions, nonimmune adults are also affected.
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD), is a significant economic disease of cattle that is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world. The causative agent, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is a member of the "Pestivirus" genus of the family Flaviviridae.
BVD infection results in a wide variety of clinical signs, due to its immunosuppressive effects, as well as having a direct effect on respiratory disease and fertility. In addition, BVD infection of a susceptible dam during a certain period of gestation can result in the production of a persistently infected (PI) fetus.
PI animals recognise intra-cellular BVD viral particles as ‘self’ and shed virus in large quantities throughout life; they represent the cornerstone of the success of BVD as a disease.
Meningitis is a very common in children. Newborns can develop herpes virus infections through contact with infected secretions in the birth canal. Other viral infections are acquired by breathing air contaminated with virus-containing droplets exhaled by an infected person. Arbovirus infections are acquired from bites by infected insects (called epidemic encephalitis). Viral central nervous system infections in newborns and infants usually begin with fever. The inability of infants to communicate directly makes it difficult to understand their symptoms. Newborns may have no other symptoms and may initially not otherwise appear ill. Infants older than a month or so typically become irritable and fussy and refuse to eat. Vomiting is common. Sometimes the soft spot on top of a newborn's head (fontanelle) bulges, indicating an increase in pressure on the brain. Because irritation of the meninges is worsened by movement, an infant with meningitis may cry more, rather than calm down, when picked up and rocked. Some infants develop a strange, high-pitched cry. Infants with encephalitis often have seizures or other abnormal movements. Infants with severe encephalitis may become lethargic and comatose and then die. To make the diagnosis of meningitis or the diagnosis of encephalitis, doctors do a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for laboratory analysis in children.
Viral disease is usually detected by clinical presentation, for instance severe muscle and joint pains preceding fever, or skin rash and swollen lymph glands.
Laboratory investigation is not directly effective in detecting viral infections, because they do not themselves increase the white blood cell count. Laboratory investigation may be useful in diagnosing associated bacterial infections, however.
Viral infections are commonly of limited duration, so treatment usually consists in reducing the symptoms; antipyretic and analgesic drugs are commonly prescribed.
Prevention strategies include reducing the breeding of midges through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between midges and people. This can be accomplished by reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled habitats and encourage the midge larvae to grow.
Oropouche fever is present in epidemics so the chances of one contracting it after being exposed to areas of midgets or mosquitoes is rare.
One study has focused on identifying OROV through the use of RNA extraction from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This study revealed that OROV caused central nervous system infections in three patients. The three patients all had meningoencephalitis and also showed signs of clear lympho-monocytic cellular pattern in CSF, high protein, and normal to slightly decreased glucose levels indicating they had viral infections. Two of the patients already had underlying infections that can effect the CNS and immune system and in particular one of these patients has HIV/AIDS and the third patient has neurocysticercosis. Two patients were infected with OROV developed meningitis and it was theorized that this is due to them being immunocompromised. Through this it was revealed that it's possible that the invasion of the central nervous system by the oropouche virus can be performed by a pervious blood-brain barrier damage.
EVD has a high risk of death in those infected which varies between 25 percent and 90 percent of those infected. , the average risk of death among those infected is 50 percent. The highest risk of death was 90 percent in the 2002–2003 Republic of the Congo outbreak.
Death, if it occurs, follows typically six to sixteen days after symptoms appear and is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss. Early supportive care to prevent dehydration may reduce the risk of death.
If an infected person survives, recovery may be quick and complete. Prolonged cases are often complicated by the occurrence of long-term problems, such as inflammation of the testicles, joint pains, muscular pain, skin peeling, or hair loss. Eye symptoms, such as light sensitivity, excess tearing, and vision loss have been described.
Ebola can stay in some body parts like the eyes, breasts, and testicles after infection. Sexual transmission after recovery has been suspected. If sexual transmission occurs following recovery it is believed to be a rare event. One case of a condition similar to meningitis has been reported many months after recovery as of Oct. 2015.
A study of 44 survivors of the Ebola virus in Sierra Leone reported musculoskeletal pain in 70%, headache in 48% and eye problems in 14%.
Rotavirus A, which accounts for more than 90% of rotavirus gastroenteritis in humans, is endemic worldwide. Each year rotavirus causes millions of cases of diarrhoea in developing countries, almost 2 million of which result in hospitalisation. In 2013, an estimated 215,000 children younger than five died from rotavirus, 90 percent of whom were in developing countries. Almost every child has been infected with rotavirus by age five. Rotavirus is the leading single cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and children, is responsible for about a third of the cases requiring hospitalisation, and causes 37% of deaths attributable to diarrhoea and 5% of all deaths in children younger than five. Boys are twice as likely as girls to be admitted to hospital for rotavirus.
In the pre-vaccination era, rotavirus infections occurred primarily during cool, dry seasons. The number attributable to food contamination is unknown.
Outbreaks of rotavirus A diarrhoea are common among hospitalised infants, young children attending day care centres, and elderly people in nursing homes. An outbreak caused by contaminated municipal water occurred in Colorado in 1981.
During 2005, the largest recorded epidemic of diarrhoea occurred in Nicaragua. This unusually large and severe outbreak was associated with mutations in the rotavirus A genome, possibly helping the virus escape the prevalent immunity in the population. A similar large outbreak occurred in Brazil in 1977.
Rotavirus B, also called adult diarrhoea rotavirus or ADRV, has caused major epidemics of severe diarrhoea affecting thousands of people of all ages in China. These epidemics occurred as a result of sewage contamination of drinking water. Rotavirus B infections also occurred in India in 1998; the causative strain was named CAL. Unlike ADRV, the CAL strain is endemic. To date, epidemics caused by rotavirus B have been confined to mainland China, and surveys indicate a lack of immunity to this species in the United States.
Rotavirus C has been associated with rare and sporadic cases of diarrhoea in children, and small outbreaks have occurred in families.
Recent work has been done by virologists to learn more about the interference in infection of host cells and how DI genomes could potentially work as antiviral agents. The Dimmock & Easton, 2014 article explains that pre-clinical work is being done to test their effectiveness against influenza viruses. DI-RNAs have also been found to aid in the infection of fungi via viruses of the family "Partitiviridae" for the first time, which makes room for more interdisciplinary work.
Rotaviruses infect the young of many species of animals and they are a major cause of diarrhoea in wild and reared animals worldwide. As a pathogen of livestock, notably in young calves and piglets, rotaviruses cause economic loss to farmers because of costs of treatment associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. These rotaviruses are a potential reservoir for genetic exchange with human rotaviruses. There is evidence that animal rotaviruses can infect humans, either by direct transmission of the virus or by contributing one or several RNA segments to reassortants with human strains.
Disease can arise if the host's protective immune mechanisms are compromised and the organism inflicts damage on the host. Microorganisms can cause tissue damage by releasing a variety of toxins or destructive enzymes. For example, Clostridium tetani releases a toxin that paralyzes muscles, and staphylococcus releases toxins that produce shock and sepsis. Not all infectious agents cause disease in all hosts. For example, less than 5% of individuals infected with polio develop disease. On the other hand, some infectious agents are highly virulent. The prion causing mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease invariably kills all animals and people that are infected.
Persistent infections occur because the body is unable to clear the organism after the initial infection. Persistent infections are characterized by the continual presence of the infectious organism, often as latent infection with occasional recurrent relapses of active infection. There are some viruses that can maintain a persistent infection by infecting different cells of the body. Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and become reactivated when specific circumstances arise.
Persistent infections cause millions of deaths globally each year. Chronic infections by parasites account for a high morbidity and mortality in many underdeveloped countries.
Infectious diseases are sometimes called contagious disease when they are easily transmitted by contact with an ill person or their secretions (e.g., influenza). Thus, a contagious disease is a subset of infectious disease that is especially infective or easily transmitted. Other types of infectious/transmissible/communicable diseases with more specialized routes of infection, such as vector transmission or sexual transmission, are usually not regarded as "contagious", and often do not require medical isolation (sometimes loosely called quarantine) of victims. However, this specialized connotation of the word "contagious" and "contagious disease" (easy transmissibility) is not always respected in popular use.
Infectious diseases are commonly transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The types of contact are through person to person and droplet spread. Indirect contact such as airborne transmission, contaminated objects, food and drinking water, animal person contact, animal reservoirs, insect bites, and environmental reservoirs are another way infectious diseases are transmitted,
A list of the more common and well-known diseases associated with infectious pathogens is provided and is not intended to be a complete listing.
Serious complications are uncommon, occurring in less than 5% of cases:
- CNS complications include meningitis, encephalitis, hemiplegia, Guillain–Barré syndrome, and transverse myelitis. Prior infectious mononucleiosis has been linked to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS).
- Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia (direct Coombs test is positive) and various cytopenias, and bleeding (caused by thrombocytopenia) can occur.
- Mild jaundice
- Hepatitis with the Epstein–Barr virus is rare.
- Upper airway obstruction from tonsillar hypertrophy is rare.
- Fulminant disease course of immunocompromised patients is rare.
- Splenic rupture is rare.
- Myocarditis and pericarditis are rare.
- Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
- Chronic fatigue syndrome
- Cancers associated with the Epstein-Barr virus include: Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphomas in general as well as nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma.
Once the acute symptoms of an initial infection disappear, they often do not return. But once infected, the patient carries the virus for the rest of his or her life. The virus typically lives dormantly in B lymphocytes. Independent infections of mononucleosis may be contracted multiple times, regardless of whether the patient is already carrying the virus dormantly. Periodically, the virus can reactivate, during which time the patient is again infectious, but usually without any symptoms of illness. Usually, a patient has few, if any, further symptoms or problems from the latent B lymphocyte infection. However, in susceptible hosts under the appropriate environmental stressors, the virus can reactivate and cause vague physical symptoms (or may be subclinical), and during this phase the virus can spread to others.
In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection. A DIP can usually still penetrate host cells, but requires another fully functional virus particle (the 'helper' virus) to co-infect a cell with it, in order to provide the lost factors. The existence of DIPs has been known about for decades, and they can occur within nearly every class of both DNA and RNA viruses.
The traditional theory is that a cold can be "caught" by prolonged exposure to cold weather such as rain or winter conditions, which is how the disease got its name. Some of the viruses that cause the common colds are seasonal, occurring more frequently during cold or wet weather. The reason for the seasonality has not been conclusively determined. Possible explanations may include cold temperature-induced changes in the respiratory system, decreased immune response, and low humidity causing an increase in viral transmission rates, perhaps due to dry air allowing small viral droplets to disperse farther and stay in the air longer.
The apparent seasonality may also be due to social factors, such as people spending more time indoors, near infected people, and specifically children at school. There is some controversy over the role of low body temperature as a risk factor for the common cold; the majority of the evidence suggests that it may result in greater susceptibility to infection.
The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects). Which of these routes is of primary importance has not been determined; however, hand-to-hand and hand-to-surface-to-hand contact seems of more importance than transmission via aerosols. The viruses may survive for prolonged periods in the environment (over 18 hours for rhinoviruses) and can be picked up by people's hands and subsequently carried to their eyes or nose where infection occurs. Transmission is common in daycare and at school due to the proximity of many children with little immunity and frequently poor hygiene. These infections are then brought home to other members of the family. There is no evidence that recirculated air during commercial flight is a method of transmission. People sitting in close proximity appear to be at greater risk of infection.
Rhinovirus-caused colds are most infectious during the first three days of symptoms; they are much less infectious afterwards.
Infectious pathogen-associated diseases include many of the most common and costly chronic illnesses. The treatment of chronic diseases accounts for 75% of all US healthcare costs (amounting to $1.7 trillion in 2009).
About 90% of cases of infectious mononucleosis are caused by the Epstein–Barr virus, a member of the Herpesviridae family of DNA viruses. It is one of the most commonly found viruses throughout the world. Contrary to common belief, the Epstein–Barr virus is not highly contagious. It can only be contracted through direct contact with an infected person’s saliva, such as through kissing or sharing toothbrushes, cups, etc. About 95% of the population has been exposed to this virus by the age of 40, but only 15–20% of teenagers and about 40% of exposed adults actually become infected.