Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
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Ribavirin is one medication which has shown good potential for the treatment of HPIV-3 given recent in-vitro tests (in-vivo tests show mixed results). Ribavirin is a broadscale anti-viral and is currently being administered to those who are severely immuno-compromised, despite the lack of conclusive evidence for its use. Protein inhibitors and novel forms of medication have also been proposed to relieve the symptoms of infection.
Furthermore, antibiotics may be used if a secondary bacterial infection develops. Corticosteroid treatment and nebulizers are also a first line choice against croup if breathing difficulties ensue.
Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Children with hydrocephalus often need a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Nucleoside analog ribavirin is used in some cases due to the inhibitory effect the agent has "in vitro" on arenaviruses. However, there is not sufficient evidence for efficacy in humans to support routine use. The only survivor of a transplant-associated LCMV infection was treated with ribavirin and simultaneous tapering of the immunosuppressive medications. Early and intravenous ribavirin treatment is required for maximal efficacy, and it can produce considerable side effects. Ribavirin has not been evaluated yet in controlled clinical trials.
Use of ribavirin during pregnancy is generally not recommended, as some studies indicate the possibility of teratogenic effects. If aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis develops in consequence to LCMV, hospitalization and supportive treatment may be required. In some circumstances, anti-inflammatory drugs may also be considered. In general, mortality is less than one percent.
Development of new therapies has been hindered by the lack of appropriate animal model systems for some important viruses and also because of the difficulty in conducting human clinical trials for diseases that are rare. Nonetheless, numerous innovative approaches to antiviral therapy are available including candidate thiazolide and purazinecarboxamide derivatives with potential broad-spectrum antiviral efficacy. New herpes virus drugs include viral helicase-primase and terminase inhibitors. A promising new area of research involves therapies based on enhanced understanding of host antiviral immune responses.
Treatments of proven efficacy are currently limited mostly to herpes viruses and human immunodeficiency virus. The herpes virus is of two types: herpes type 1 (HSV-1, or oral herpes) and herpes type 2 (HSV-2, or genital herpes). Although there is no particular cure; there are treatments that can relieve the symptoms. Drugs like Famvir, Zovirax, and Valtrex are among the drugs used, but these medications can only decrease pain and shorten the healing time. They can also decrease the total number of outbreaks in the surrounding. Warm baths also may relive the pain of genital herpes.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (HIV) is treated by using a combination of medications to fight against the HIV infection in the body. This is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART is not a cure, but it can control the virus so that a person can live a longer, healthier life and reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to others around him. ART involves taking a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day, exactly as prescribed by the doctor. These HIV medicines prevent HIV Virus from multiplying (making copies of itself in the body), which reduces the amount of HIV in the body. Having less HIV in the body gives the immune system a chance to recover and fight off infections and cancers. Even though there is still some HIV in the body, the immune system is strong enough to fight off infections and cancers. By reducing the amount of HIV in the body, HIV medicines also reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to others. ART is recommended for all people with HIV, regardless of how long they’ve had the virus or how healthy they are. If left untreated, HIV will attack the immune system and eventually progress to AIDS.
Despite decades of research, no vaccines currently exist.
Recombinant technology has however been used to target the formation of vaccines for HPIV-1, -2 and -3 and has taken the form of several live-attenuated intranasal vaccines. Two vaccines in particular were found to be immunogenic and well tolerated against HPIV-3 in phase I trials. HPIV-1 and -2 vaccine candidates remain less advanced.
Vaccine techniques which have been used against HPIVs are not limited to intranasal forms, but also viruses attenuated by cold passage, host range attenuation, chimeric construct vaccines and also introducing mutations with the help of reverse genetics to achieve attenuation.
Maternal antibodies may offer some degree of protection against HPIVs during the early stages of life via the colostrum in breast milk.
Immunosuppressive therapy has been effective in halting the disease for laboratory animals.
Oropouche Fever has no cure or specific therapy so treatment is done by relieving the pain of the symptoms through symptomatic treatment. Certain oral analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents can help treat headaches and body pains. In extreme cases of oropouche fever the drug, Ribavirin is recommended to help against the virus. This is called antiviral therapy. Treatments also consist of drinking lots of fluids to prevent dehydration.
Asprin is not a recommended choice of drug because it can reduce blood clotting and may aggravate the hemorrhagic effects and prolong recovery time.
The infection is usually self-limiting and complications are rare. This illness usually lasts for about a week but in extreme cases can be prolonged. Patients usually recover fully with no long term ill effects. There have been no recorded fatalities resulting from oropouche fever.
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, may be used to reduce fever and pain. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, while used to try to reduce throat pain or enlarged tonsils, remains controversial due to the lack of evidence that it is effective and the potential for side effects. Intravenous corticosteroids, usually hydrocortisone or dexamethasone, are not recommended for routine use but may be useful if there is a risk of airway obstruction, a very low platelet count, or hemolytic anemia.
There is little evidence to support the use of antivirals such as aciclovir and valacyclovir although they may reduce initial viral shedding. Although antivirals are not recommended for people with simple infectious mononucleosis, they may be useful (in conjunction with steroids) in the management of severe EBV manifestations, such as EBV meningitis, peripheral neuritis, hepatitis, or hematologic complications.
Although antibiotics exert no antiviral action they may be indicated to treat bacterial secondary infections of the throat, such as with streptococcus (strep throat). However, ampicillin and amoxicillin are not recommended during acute Epstein–Barr virus infection as a diffuse rash may develop.
Treatment is primarily supportive in nature. Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves survival. Rehydration may be via the oral or by intravenous route. These measures may include management of pain, nausea, fever and anxiety. The World Health Organization recommends avoiding the use of aspirin or ibuprofen for pain due to the bleeding risk associated with use of these medications.
Blood products such as packed red blood cells, platelets or fresh frozen plasma may also be used. Other regulators of coagulation have also been tried including heparin in an effort to prevent disseminated intravascular coagulation and clotting factors to decrease bleeding. Antimalarial medications and antibiotics are often used before the diagnosis is confirmed, though there is no evidence to suggest such treatment helps. A number of experimental treatments are being studied.
If hospital care is not possible, the World Health Organization has guidelines for care at home that have been relatively successful. In such situations, recommendations include using towels soaked in bleach solutions when moving infected people or bodies and applying bleach on stains. It is also recommended that the caregivers wash hands with bleach solutions and cover their mouth and nose with a cloth.
Infectious mononucleosis is generally self-limiting, so only symptomatic or supportive treatments are used. The need for rest and return to usual activities after the acute phase of the infection may reasonably be based on the person's general energy levels. Nevertheless, in an effort to decrease the risk of splenic rupture experts advise avoidance of contact sports and other heavy physical activity, especially when involving increased abdominal pressure or the Valsalva maneuver (as in rowing or weight training), for at least the first 3–4 weeks of illness or until enlargement of the spleen has resolved, as determined by a treating physician.
No specific treatment is currently approved. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises people to be careful of advertisements making unverified or fraudulent claims of benefits supposedly gained from various anti-Ebola products.
Treatment of acute rotavirus infection is nonspecific and involves management of symptoms and, most importantly, management of dehydration. If untreated, children can die from the resulting severe dehydration. Depending on the severity of diarrhoea, treatment consists of oral rehydration therapy, during which the child is given extra water to drink that contains specific amounts of salt and sugar. In 2004, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and UNICEF recommended the use of low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution and zinc supplementation as a two-pronged treatment of acute diarrhoea. Some infections are serious enough to warrant hospitalisation where fluids are given by intravenous therapy or nasogastric intubation, and the child's electrolytes and blood sugar are monitored. Probiotics have been shown to reduce the duration of rotavirus diarrhoea, and according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology "effective interventions include administration of specific probiotics such as "Lactobacillus rhamnosus" or "Saccharomyces boulardii", diosmectite or racecadotril." Rotavirus infections rarely cause other complications and for a well managed child the prognosis is excellent.
When infection attacks the body, "anti-infective" drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs exist, depending on the type of organism targeted; they include antibacterial (antibiotic; including antitubercular), antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic (including antiprotozoal and antihelminthic) agents. Depending on the severity and the type of infection, the antibiotic may be given by mouth or by injection, or may be applied topically. Severe infections of the brain are usually treated with intravenous antibiotics. Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and do not affect viruses. Antibiotics work by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria or killing the bacteria. The most common classes of antibiotics used in medicine include penicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones and tetracyclines.
Not all infections require treatment, and for many self-limiting infections the treatment may cause more side-effects than benefits. Antimicrobial stewardship is the concept that healthcare providers should treat an infection with an antimicrobial that specifically works well for the target pathogen for the shortest amount of time and to only treat when there is a known or highly suspected pathogen that will respond to the medication.
No medications or herbal remedies have been conclusively demonstrated to shorten the duration of infection. Treatment thus comprises symptomatic relief. Getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, and gargling with warm salt water are reasonable conservative measures. Much of the benefit from treatment is, however, attributed to the placebo effect.
Treatments that may help with symptoms include simple pain medication and medications for fevers such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen (paracetamol). It, however, is not clear if acetaminophen helps with symptoms. It is not known if over the counter cough medications are effective for treating an acute cough. Cough medicines are not recommended for use in children due to a lack of evidence supporting effectiveness and the potential for harm. In 2009, Canada restricted the use of over-the-counter cough and cold medication in children six years and under due to concerns regarding risks and unproven benefits. The misuse of dextromethorphan (an over-the-counter cough medicine) has led to its ban in a number of countries. Intranasal corticosteroids have not been found to be useful.
In adults short term use of nasal decongestants may have a small benefit. Antihistamines may improve symptoms in the first day or two; however, there is no longer-term benefit and they have adverse effects such as drowsiness. Other decongestants such as pseudoephedrine appear effective in adults. Ipratropium nasal spray may reduce the symptoms of a runny nose but has little effect on stuffiness. The safety and effectiveness of nasal decongestant use in children is unclear.
Due to lack of studies, it is not known whether increased fluid intake improves symptoms or shortens respiratory illness, and there is a similar lack of data for the use of heated humidified air. One study has found chest vapor rub to provide some relief of nocturnal cough, congestion, and sleep difficulty.
Modern vaccination programmes aim not only to provide a high level of protection from clinical disease for the dam, but, crucially, to protect against viraemia and prevent the production of PIs. While the immune mechanisms involved are the same, the level of immune protection required for foetal protection is much higher than for prevention of clinical disease.
While challenge studies indicate that killed, as well as live, vaccines prevent foetal infection under experimental conditions, the efficacy of vaccines under field conditions has been questioned. The birth of PI calves into vaccinated herds suggests that killed vaccines do not stand up to the challenge presented by the viral load excreted by a PI in the field.
The mainstay of eradication is the identification and removal of persistently infected animals. Re-infection is then prevented by vaccination and high levels of biosecurity, supported by continuing surveillance. PIs act as viral reservoirs and are the principal source of viral infection but transiently infected animals and contaminated fomites also play a significant role in transmission.
Leading the way in BVD eradication, almost 20 years ago, were the Scandinavian countries. Despite different conditions at the start of the projects in terms of legal support, and regardless of initial prevalence of herds with PI animals, it took all countries approximately 10 years to reach their final stages.
Once proven that BVD eradication could be achieved in a cost efficient way, a number of regional programmes followed in Europe, some of which have developed into national schemes.
Vaccination is an essential part of both control and eradication. While BVD virus is still circulating within the national herd, breeding cattle are at risk of producing PI neonates and the economic consequences of BVD are still relevant. Once eradication has been achieved, unvaccinated animals will represent a naïve and susceptible herd. Infection from imported animals or contaminated fomites brought into the farm, or via transiently infected in-contacts will have devastating consequences.
Viral disease is usually detected by clinical presentation, for instance severe muscle and joint pains preceding fever, or skin rash and swollen lymph glands.
Laboratory investigation is not directly effective in detecting viral infections, because they do not themselves increase the white blood cell count. Laboratory investigation may be useful in diagnosing associated bacterial infections, however.
Viral infections are commonly of limited duration, so treatment usually consists in reducing the symptoms; antipyretic and analgesic drugs are commonly prescribed.
Treatment (which is based on supportive care) is as follows:
Pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy is often used to treat Toxoplasmic Encephalitis (TE), which is caused by Toxoplasma gondii and can be life-threatening for people with weak immune systems. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in conjunction with the established pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy, decreases the chance of relapse in patients with HIV and TE from approximately 18% to 11%. This is a significant difference as relapse may impact the severity and prognosis of disease and result in an increase in healthcare expenditure.
Treatment is generally supportive. Rest, hydration, antipyretics, and pain or anti-inflammatory medications may be given as needed.
Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus have a specific antiviral therapy. For herpes the treatment of choice is aciclovir.
Surgical management is indicated where there is extremely increased intracranial pressure, infection of an adjacent bony structure (e.g. mastoiditis), skull fracture, or abscess formation.
The majority of people that have viral meningitis get better within 7-10 days.
No specific treatment is available, but antibiotics can be used to prevent secondary infections.
Vaccines are available (ATCvet codes: for the inactivated vaccine, for the live vaccine; plus various combinations).
Biosecurity protocols including adequate isolation, disinfection are important in controlling the spread of the disease.
Should the viral progression be diagnosed during stage 1 (even during late stage 1 when stage 2 symptoms start to manifest themselves) then treatment to combat the infection can be administered successfully—there is no cure for SSPE but if it is caught early enough then the sufferer can respond to the treatment and prevent symptom recurrence by taking the medication for the rest of their life. The treatment for the SSPE infection is the immunomodulator interferon and specific antiviral medication—ribavirin and inosine pranobex are specifically used to greater effect than antivirals such as amantadine.
For those who have progressed to stage 2 or beyond, the disease is incurable. For patients in the terminal phase of the disease there is a palliative care and treatment scheme—this involves anticonvulsant therapy (to help with the body's progressive loss of control of the nervous system causing gradually more intensive spasms/convulsions) alongside supportive measures to help maintain vital functioning. It is fairly standard as the infection spreads and symptoms intensify that feeding tubes need to be inserted to keep a nutritional balance. As the disease progresses to its most advanced phase, the patient will need constant nursing as normal bodily function declines to the complete collapse of the nervous system.
Combinations of treatment for SSPE include:
- Oral inosine pranobex (oral isoprinosine) combined with intrathecal (injection through a lumbar puncture into the spinal fluid) or intraventricular interferon alpha.
- Oral inosine pranobex (oral isoprinosine) combined with interferon beta.
- Intrathecal interferon alpha combined with intravenous ribavirin.
Thoroughly cleaning boats, trailers, nets and other equipment when traveling between different lakes and streams also
helps. The only EPA-approved disinfectant proven effective against VHS is Virkon AQUATIC (made by Dupont). Chlorine bleach kills the VHS virus, but in concentrations that are much too caustic for ordinary use. Disinfecting stations can be found at various inland lake boat launches in the Great Lakes region.
There is currently no specific therapy. Intravenous fluids and treatment of the hepatic encephalopathy may help. Increasing dietary levels of branched chain amino acids and feeding low protein diets can help signs of hepatic encephalopathy, which is often accomplished by feeding small amounts of grain and/or beet pulp, and removing high-protein feedstuffs such as alfalfa hay. Grazing on non-legume grass may be acceptable if it is late summer or fall, although the horse should only be permitted to eat in the evening so as to avoid photosensitization. Due to the risk of gastric impaction, stomach size should be monitored.
Sedation is minimized and used only to control behavior that could lead to injury of the animal and to allow therapeutic procedures, and should preferably involve a sedative other than a benzodiazepine. Stressing the animal should be avoided if at all possible. Plasma transfusions may be needed if spontaneous bleeding occurs, to replace clotting factors. Antibiotics are sometimes prescribed to prevent bacterial translocation from the intestines. Antioxidants such as vitamin E, B-complex vitamins, and acetylcysteine may be given. High blood ammonia is often treated with oral neomycin, often in conjunction with lactulose, metronidazole and probiotics, to decrease production and absorption of ammonia from the gastrointestinal tract.
Vaccination is available against tick-borne and Japanese encephalitis and should be considered for at-risk individuals. Post-infectious encephalomyelitis complicating smallpox vaccination is avoidable, for all intents and purposes, as smallpox is nearly eradicated. Contraindication to Pertussis immunization should be observed in patients with encephalitis.