Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
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Diagnosis is made with isolation of "Pasteurella multocida" in a normally sterile site (blood, pus, or cerebrospinal fluid).
As the infection is usually transmitted into humans through animal bites, antibiotics usually treat the infection, but medical attention should be sought if the wound is severely swelling. Pasteurellosis is usually treated with high-dose penicillin if severe. Either tetracycline or chloramphenicol provides an alternative in beta-lactam-intolerant patients. However, it is most important to treat the wound.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated roughly 1.7 million hospital-associated infections, from all types of bacteria combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths each year. Other estimates indicate 10%, or 2 million, patients a year become infected, with the annual cost ranging from $4.5 billion to $11 billion. In the USA, the most frequent type of infection hospitalwide is urinary tract infection (36%), followed by surgical site infection (20%), and bloodstream infection and pneumonia (both 11%).
In 2012 the Health Protection Agency reported the prevalence rate of HAIs in England was 6.4% in 2011, against a rate of 8.2% in 2006. With respiratory tract, urinary tract and surgical site infections the most common types of HAI reported.
HIV-infected children less than 12 years of age also develop disseminated MAC. Some age adjustment is necessary when clinicians interpret CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in children less than 2 years of age. Diagnosis, therapy, and prophylaxis should follow recommendations similar to those for adolescents and adults.
Tiamulin, chlortetracycline or tilmicosin may be used to treat and prevent the spread of the disease.
Vaccination is a very effective method of control, and also has an effect on pig productivity.
Eradication of the disease is possible but the organism commonly reinfects herds.
Porcine enzootic pneumonia is caused by "Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" and describes an important respiratory disease of pigs.
It is part of the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex along with Swine Influenza, PRRS and Porcine circovirus 2, and even though on its own it is quite a mild disease, it predisposes to secondary infections with organisms such as "Pasteurella multocida".
Clinical signs are most commonly seen in pigs over 8 weeks of age, and the disease occurs worldwide. Transmission is horizontal and vertical from sows.
The newborn`s exposure to the maternal vaginal bacterial flora which contains aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora can lead to the development of anaerobic bacterial infection. These infections include cellulitis of the site of fetal monitoring (caused by "Bacterodes" spp.), bacteremia, aspiration pneumonia (caused by "Bacterodes" spp.), conjunctivitis (caused by clostridia,) omphalitis (caused by mixed flora), and infant botulism. Clostridial species may play a role in necrotizing enterocolitis. Management of these infection necessitates treating of the underlying condition(s) when present, and administration of proper antimicrobial therapy
Condition predisposing to anaerobic infections include: exposure of a sterile body location to a high inoculum of indigenous bacteria of mucous membrane ﬂora origin, inadequate blood supply and tissue necrosis which lower the oxidation and reduction potential which support the growth of anaerobes. Conditions which can lower the blood supply and can predispose to anaerobic infection are: trauma, foreign body, malignancy, surgery, edema, shock, colitis and vascular disease. Other predisposing conditions include splenectomy, neutropenia, immunosuppression, hypogammaglobinemia, leukemia, collagen vascular disease and cytotoxic drugs and diabetes mellitus. A preexisting infection caused by aerobic or facultative organisms can alter the local tissue conditions and make them more favorable for the growth of anaerobes. Impairment in defense mechanisms due to anaerobic conditions can also favor anaerobic infection. These include production of leukotoxins (by "Fusobacterium" spp.), phagocytosis intracellular killing impairments (often caused by encapsulated anaerobes and by succinic acid ( produced by "Bacteroides" spp.), chemotaxis inhibition (by "Fusobacterium, Prevotella" and "Porphyromonas" spp.), and proteases degradation of serum proteins (by Bacteroides spp.) and production of leukotoxins (by "Fusobacterium" spp.).
The hallmarks of anaerobic infection include suppuration, establishment of an abscess, thrombophlebitis and gangrenous destruction of tissue with gas generation. Anaerobic bacteria are very commonly recovered in chronic infections, and are often found following the failure of therapy with antimicrobials that are ineffective against them, such as trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole), aminoglycosides, and the earlier quinolones.
Some infections are more likely to be caused by anaerobic bacteria, and they should be suspected in most instances. These infections include brain abscess, oral or dental infections, human or animal bites, aspiration pneumonia and lung abscesses, amnionitis, endometritis, septic abortions, tubo-ovarian abscess, peritonitis and abdominal abscesses following viscus perforation, abscesses in and around the oral and rectal areas, pus-forming necrotizing infections of soft tissue or muscle and postsurgical infections that emerge following procedures on the oral or gastrointestinal tract or female pelvic area. Some solid malignant tumors, ( colonic, uterine and bronchogenic, and head and neck necrotic tumors, are more likely to become secondarily infected with anaerobes. The lack of oxygen within the tumor that are proximal to the endogenous adjacent mucosal ﬂora can predispose such infections.
Dogs will typically recover from kennel cough within a few weeks. However, secondary infections could lead to complications that could do more harm than the disease itself. Several opportunistic invaders have been recovered from the respiratory tracts of dogs with kennel cough, including Streptococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas, and various coliforms. These bacteria have the potential to cause pneumonia or sepsis, which drastically increase the severity of the disease. These complications are evident in thoracic radiographic examinations. Findings will be mild in animals affected only by kennel cough, while those with complications may have evidence of segmental atelectasis and other severe side effects.
Stress often serves as the final precursor to BRD. The diseases that make up BRD can persist in a cattle herd for a long period of time before becoming symptomatic, but immune systems weakened by stress can stop controlling the disease. Major sources of stress come from the shipping process
and from the co-mingling of cattle.
Weather may be another possible factor. Cases are more common in the fall (although this is the traditional time to sell cattle), and while the relationship between weather and BRD is poorly understood, it is often suggested to avoid transporting cattle during extreme weather.
Since opportunistic infections can cause severe disease, much emphasis is placed on measures to prevent infection. Such a strategy usually includes restoration of the immune system as soon as possible, avoiding exposures to infectious agents, and using antimicrobial medications ("prophylactic medications") directed against specific infections.
MAI is common in immunocompromised individuals, including senior citizens and those with HIV/AIDS or cystic fibrosis. Bronchiectasis, the bronchial condition which causes unnatural enlargement of the bronchial tubes, is commonly found with MAI infection. Whether the bronchiectasis leads to the MAC infection or is the result of it is not always known.
The "Mycobacterium avium complex" (MAC) includes common atypical bacteria, i.e. nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), found in the environment which can infect people with HIV and low CD4 cell count (below 100/microliter); mode of infection is usually inhalation or ingestion.
MAC causes disseminated disease in up to 40% of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, producing fever, sweats, weight loss, and anemia. Disseminated MAC characteristically affects people with advanced HIV disease and peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less than 100 cells/uL. Effective prevention and therapy of MAC has the potential to contribute substantially to improved quality of life and duration of survival for HIV-infected persons.
Opportunistic infections caused by Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated with Lymphocyte T-Cell Immune Modulator.
Fever and sickness behavior and other signs of infection are often taken to be due to them. However, they are evolved physiological and behavioral responses of the host to clear itself of the infection. Instead of incurring the costs of deploying these evolved responses to infections, the body opts to tolerate an infection as an alternative to seeking to control or remove the infecting pathogen.
Subclinical infections are important since they allow infections to spread from a reserve of carriers. They also can cause clinical problems unrelated to the direct issue of infection. For example, in the case of urinary tract infections in women, this infection may cause preterm delivery if the person becomes pregnant without proper treatment.
BRD is a "multi-factorial syndrome" that is dependent on a number of different causes. A viral infection combines with a bacterial agent, which is often then aggravated by stress. Usually all three of these factors must be present in order to cause BRD. Viral agents are often present in the herd for an extended time, with almost no symptoms, and only cause severe complications with a bacterial infection.
The bacterial agents most commonly linked with BRD are "Mannheimia haemolytica", "Pasteurella multocida", "Haemophilus somnus", and "Mycoplasma bovis". Viral agents include Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), "Bovine respiratory syncytial virus" (BRSV), and "Parainfluenza type-3 virus" (PI-3).
The most efficient treatment in breeding flocks or laying hens is individual intramuscular injections of a long-acting tetracycline, with the same antibiotic in drinking water, simultaneously. The mortality and clinical signs will stop within one week, but the bacteria might remain present in the flock.
Most household disinfectants will inactivate FHV-1. The virus can survive up to 18 hours in a damp environment, but less in a dry environment and only shortly as an aerosol.
An individual may only develop signs of an infection after a period of subclinical infection, a duration that is called the incubation period. This is the case, for example, for subclinical sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS and genital warts. Individuals with such subclinical infections, and those that never develop overt illness, creates a reserve of individuals that can transmit an infectious agent to infect other individuals. Because such cases of infections do not come to clinical attention, health statistics can often fail to measure the true prevalence of an infection in a population, and this prevents the accurate modeling of its infectious transmission.
FVR is transmitted through direct contact only. It replicates in the nasal and nasopharyngeal tissues and the tonsils. Viremia (the presence of the virus in the blood) is rare. The virus is shed in saliva and eye and nasal secretions, and can also be spread by fomites. FVR has a two- to five-day incubation period. The virus is shed for one to three weeks postinfection. Latently infected cats (carriers) will shed FHV-1 intermittently for life, with the virus persisting within the trigeminal ganglion. Stress and use of corticosteroids precipitate shedding. Most disinfectants, antiseptics and detergents are effective against the virus.
The current incidence in the United States is somewhere around 0.5% per year; overall, the incidence rate for developed world falls between 0.2–0.7%. In developing countries, the incidence of omphalitis varies from 2 to 7 for 100 live births. There does not appear to be any racial or ethnic predilection.
Like many bacterial infections, omphalitis is more common in those patients who have a weakened or deficient immune system or who are hospitalized and subject to invasive procedures. Therefore, infants who are premature, sick with other infections such as blood infection (sepsis) or pneumonia, or who have immune deficiencies are at greater risk. Infants with normal immune systems are at risk if they have had a prolonged birth, birth complicated by infection of the placenta (chorioamnionitis), or have had umbilical catheters.
To increase their effectiveness, vaccines should be administered as soon as possible after a dog enters a high-risk area, such as a shelter. 10 to 14 days are required for partial immunity to develop. Administration of B. bronchiseptica and canine-parainfluenza vaccines may then be continued routinely, especially during outbreaks of kennel cough. There are several methods of administration, including parenteral and intranasal. However, the intranasal method has been recommended when exposure is imminent, due to a more rapid and localized protection. Several intranasal vaccines have been developed that contain canine adenovirus in addition to B bronchiseptica and canine-parainfluenza virus antigens. Studies have thus far not been able to determine which formula of vaccination is the most efficient. Adverse effects of vaccinations are mild, but the most common effect observed up to 30 days after administration is nasal discharge. Vaccinations are not always effective. In one study it was found that 43.3% of all dogs in the study population with respiratory disease had in fact been vaccinated.
Infection in the newborn is accompanied by a strong immune response and is correlated with the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation.
Infection with "U. urealyticum" in pregnancy and birth can be complicated by chorioamnionitis, stillbirth, premature birth, and, in the perinatal period, pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and meningitis. "U. urealyticum" has been found to be present in amniotic fluid in women who have had a premature birth with intact fetal membranes.
"U. urealyticum" has been noted as one of the infectious causes of sterile pyuria. It increases the morbidity as a cause of neonatal infections. It is associated with premature birth, preterm rupture of membranes, preterm labor, cesarean section, placental inflammation, congenital pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, fetal lung injury and death of infant. "Ureaplasma urealyticum" is associated with miscarriage.
In acute cases, a green diarrhea can be an early symptom.
The most typical symptom, in chronic cases, is the swelling of the wattles. It is more frequent in resistant local breeds. Rather than a general infection, localized infections are more characteristic. These often occur in the respiratory tract including the sinuses and pneumatoics bones, hock joints, sternal bursa, foot pads, peritoneal cavity and oviducts.
In acute cases, the most typical p.m. lesion is the petechiae observed in the epicardial fatty tissue. Necrotic foci on liver are usually found and general hyperemia is common. Due to the speed of infection and mortality, birds are in good body condition and do not exhibit the signs of prolonged illness.
Bumblefoot is a common infection for domesticated poultry and waterfowl such as chickens, ducks and quail. Due to constant walking on hard, rough, or sharp surfaces, birds can develop small wounds on the bottom of their feet. These wounds are very susceptible to infection by opportunistic bacterial pathogens, chiefly "Staphylococcus aureus". Treatment often requires opening the wound to drain the pus, soaking it in epsom salts, and antibiotic treatment and local application of the antiseptic pyodine as local dressing.