Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
Funded by The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy; Grant: 01MD19013D, Smart-MD Project, Digital Technologies
Since the start of the AIDS epidemic, PCP has been closely associated with AIDS. Because it only occurs in an immunocompromised host, it may be the first clue to a new AIDS diagnosis if the patient has no other reason to be immunocompromised (e.g. taking immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant). An unusual rise in the number of PCP cases in North America, noticed when physicians began requesting large quantities of the rarely used antibiotic pentamidine, was the first clue to the existence of AIDS in the early 1980s.
Prior to the development of more effective treatments, PCP was a common and rapid cause of death in persons living with AIDS. Much of the incidence of PCP has been reduced by instituting a standard practice of using oral co-trimoxazole (Bactrim / Septra) to prevent the disease in people with CD4 counts less than 200/μL. In populations that do not have access to preventive treatment, PCP continues to be a major cause of death in AIDS.
The disease PCP is relatively rare in people with normal immune systems, but common among people with weakened immune systems, such as premature or severely malnourished children, the elderly, and especially persons living with HIV/AIDS (in whom it is most commonly observed). PCP can also develop in patients who are taking immunosuppressive medications. It can occur in patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation or bone marrow transplantation and after surgery. Infections with "Pneumocystis" pneumonia are also common in infants with hyper IgM syndrome, an X-linked or autosomal recessive trait.
The causative organism of PCP is distributed worldwide and "Pneumocystis" pneumonia has been described in all continents except Antarctica. Greater than 75% of children are seropositive by the age of 4, which suggests a high background exposure to the organism. A post-mortem study conducted in Chile of 96 persons who died of unrelated causes (suicide, traffic accidents, and so forth) found that 65 (68%) of them had pneumocystis in their lungs, which suggests that asymptomatic pneumocystis infection is extremely common.
"Pneumocystis jirovecii" was originally described as a rare cause of pneumonia in neonates. It is commonly believed to be a commensal organism (dependent upon its human host for survival). The possibility of person-to-person transmission has recently gained credence, with supporting evidence coming from many different genotyping studies of "Pneumocystis jirovecii" isolates from human lung tissue. For example, in one outbreak of 12 cases among transplant patients in Leiden, it was suggested as likely, but not proven, that human-to-human spread may have occurred.
The annual age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of PSP is thought to be three to six times as high in males as in females. Fishman cites AAIR's of 7.4 and 1.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in males and females, respectively. Significantly above-average height is also associated with increased risk of PSP – in people who are at least 76 inches (1.93 meters) tall, the AAIR is about 200 cases per 100,000 person-years. Slim build also seems to increase the risk of PSP.
The risk of contracting a first spontaneous pneumothorax is elevated among male and female smokers by factors of approximately 22 and 9, respectively, compared to matched non-smokers of the same sex. Individuals who smoke at higher intensity are at higher risk, with a "greater-than-linear" effect; men who smoke 10 cigarettes per day have an approximate 20-fold increased risk over comparable non-smokers, while smokers consuming 20 cigarettes per day show an estimated 100-fold increase in risk.
In secondary spontaneous pneumothorax, the estimated annual AAIR is 6.3 and 2.0 cases per 100,000 person-years for males and females, respectively, with the risk of recurrence depending on the presence and severity of any underlying lung disease. Once a second episode has occurred, there is a high likelihood of subsequent further episodes. The incidence in children has not been well studied, but is estimated to be between 5 and 10 cases per 100,000 person-years.
Death from pneumothorax is very uncommon (except in tension pneumothoraces). British statistics show an annual mortality rate of 1.26 and 0.62 deaths per million person-years in men and women, respectively. A significantly increased risk of death is seen in older victims and in those with secondary pneumothoraces.
ILD may be classified according to the cause. One method of classification is as follows:
1. Inhaled substances
- printing workers (eg. carbon bblack, ink mist)
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
- Chemotherapeutic drugs
- Antiarrhythmic agents
3. Connective tissue and Autoimmune diseases
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Systemic sclerosis
- Atypical pneumonia
- Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
- "Chlamydia" trachomatis
- Respiratory Syncytial Virus
- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Hamman-Rich syndrome
- Antisynthetase syndrome
- Lymphangitic carcinomatosis
7. Predominantly in children
- Diffuse developmental disorders
- Growth abnormalities deficient alveolarisation
- Infant conditions of undefined cause
- ILD related to alveolar surfactant region
Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in the setting of a variety of lung diseases. The most common is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which accounts for approximately 70% of cases. Known lung diseases that may significantly increase the risk for pneumothorax are
In children, additional causes include measles, echinococcosis, inhalation of a foreign body, and certain congenital malformations (congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and congenital lobar emphysema).
11.5% of people with a spontaneous pneumothorax have a family member who has previously experienced a pneumothorax. The hereditary conditions – Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (which leads to emphysema), and Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome—have all been linked to familial pneumothorax. Generally, these conditions cause other signs and symptoms as well, and pneumothorax is not usually the primary finding. Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome is caused by mutations in the "FLCN" gene (located at chromosome 17p11.2), which encodes a protein named folliculin. "FLCN" mutations and lung lesions have also been identified in familial cases of pneumothorax where other features of Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome are absent. In addition to the genetic associations, the HLA haplotype AB is also a genetic predisposition to PSP.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs). It concerns alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. It may occur when an injury to the lungs triggers an abnormal healing response. Ordinarily, the body generates just the right amount of tissue to repair damage. But in interstitial lung disease, the repair process goes awry and the tissue around the air sacs (alveoli) becomes scarred and thickened. This makes it more difficult for oxygen to pass into the bloodstream. The term ILD is used to distinguish these diseases from obstructive airways diseases.
In children, several unique forms of ILD exist which are specific for the young age groups. The acronym chILD is used for this group of diseases and is derived from the English name, Children’s Interstitial Lung Diseases – chILD.
Prolonged ILD may result in pulmonary fibrosis, but this is not always the case. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is interstitial lung disease for which no obvious cause can be identified (idiopathic), and is associated with typical findings both radiographic (basal and pleural based fibrosis with honeycombing) and pathologic (temporally and spatially heterogeneous fibrosis, histopathologic honeycombing and fibroblastic foci).
In 2013 interstitial lung disease affected 595,000 people globally. This resulted in 471,000 deaths.
HIV/AIDS has become a chronic rather than an acutely fatal disease in many areas of the world. Prognosis varies between people, and both the CD4 count and viral load are useful for predicted outcomes. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. After the diagnosis of AIDS, if treatment is not available, survival ranges between 6 and 19 months. HAART and appropriate prevention of opportunistic infections reduces the death rate by 80%, and raises the life expectancy for a newly diagnosed young adult to 20–50 years. This is between two thirds and nearly that of the general population. If treatment is started late in the infection, prognosis is not as good: for example, if treatment is begun following the diagnosis of AIDS, life expectancy is ~10–40 years. Half of infants born with HIV die before two years of age without treatment.
The primary causes of death from HIV/AIDS are opportunistic infections and cancer, both of which are frequently the result of the progressive failure of the immune system. Risk of cancer appears to increase once the CD4 count is below 500/μL. The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals and has been shown to be affected by a number of factors such as a person's susceptibility and immune function; their access to health care, the presence of co-infections; and the particular strain (or strains) of the virus involved.
Tuberculosis co-infection is one of the leading causes of sickness and death in those with HIV/AIDS being present in a third of all HIV-infected people and causing 25% of HIV-related deaths. HIV is also one of the most important risk factors for tuberculosis. Hepatitis C is another very common co-infection where each disease increases the progression of the other. The two most common cancers associated with HIV/AIDS are Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Other cancers that are more frequent include anal cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.
Even with anti-retroviral treatment, over the long term HIV-infected people may experience neurocognitive disorders, osteoporosis, neuropathy, cancers, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. Some conditions like lipodystrophy may be caused both by HIV and its treatment.
HIV is transmitted by three main routes: sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission). There is no risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless these are contaminated with blood. It is possible to be co-infected by more than one strain of HIV—a condition known as HIV superinfection.
Pregnant women with HIV may still receive the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccination during pregnancy.
Many patients who are HIV positive also have other health conditions known as comorbidities. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, tuberculosis and injection drug use are some of the most common comorbidities associated with HIV. Women who screen positive for HIV should also be tested for these conditions so that they may be adequately treated or controlled during the pregnancy. The comorbidities may have serious adverse effects on the mother and child during pregnancy, so it is extremely important to identify them early during the pregnancy.
Babies born to HIV-positive women should receive a 6-week course of zidovudine (AZT). The medication should be started within the first 6 to 12 hours of life. The baby should be tested for HIV at 14 to 21 days of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and once more at 4 to 6 months of age. Usual antibody based testing is unreliable in infants due to the transmission of maternal antibodies. A qualitative HIV DNA PCR assay is recommended as it will detect pro-viral HIV DNA since HIV RNA may be suppressed by ART. In order to ensure the baby is HIV-negative, there must be two negative test results. Since zidovudine has been known to cause or worsen anemia, the baby's blood count should be routinely checked during AZT therapy.
To reduce the risk of developing "Pneumocystis jirovecii" pneumonia (PCP), all infants born to HIV-positive mothers should receive trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at age 4–6 weeks.
Although the risk is very low, HIV can also be transmitted to a baby through food that was previously chewed (pre-chewed) by a mother or caretaker infected with HIV. To be safe, babies should not be fed pre-chewed food.
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), also known as Canale-Smith syndrome, is a form of lymphoproliferative disorder (LPDs). It affects lymphocyte apoptosis. It is a RASopathy.
It is a rare genetic disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas mediated apoptosis. Normally, after infectious insult, the immune system down-regulates by increasing Fas expression on activated B and T lymphocytes and Fas-ligand on activated T lymphocytes. Fas and Fas-ligand interact to trigger the caspase cascade, leading to cell apoptosis. Patients with ALPS have a defect in this apoptotic pathway, leading to chronic non-malignant lymphoproliferation, autoimmune disease, and secondary cancers.
Treatment is most commonly directed at autoimmune disease and may be needed to treat bulky lymphoproliferation. First line therapies include corticosteroids (very active but toxic with chronic use), and IVIgG, which are not as effective as in other immune cytopenia syndromes.
Second line therapies include: mycophenolate mofetil (cellcept) which inactivates inosine monophosphate, most studied in clinical trials with responses varying (relapse, resolution, partial response). It does not affect lymphoproliferation or reduce DNTs, with no drug-drug interactions. This treatment is commonly used agent in patients who require chronic treatment based on tolerance and efficacy. It may cause hypogammaglobulinemia (transient) requiring IVIgG replacement.
Sirolimus (rapamycin, rapamune) which is a mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor can be active in most patients and can in some cases lead to complete or near-complete resolution of autoimmune disease (>90%) With this treatment most patients have complete resolution of lymphoproliferation, including lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly (>90%) and have elimination of peripheral blood DNTs. Sirolimus may not be as immune suppressive in normal lymphocytes as other agents. Some patients have had improvement in immune function with transition from cellcept to rapamycin and it has not been reported to cause hypogammaglobulinemia. Hypothetically, Sirolimus may have lower risk of secondary cancers as opposed to other immune suppressants and requires therapeutic drug monitoring. It is the second most commonly used agent in patients that require chronic therapy. It is mostly well tolerated (though side effects include mucositis, diarrhea, hyperlipidemia, delayed wound healing) with drug-drug interactions. It has better activity against autoimmune disease and lymphoproliferation than mycophenolate mofetil and other drugs; however, sirolimus requires therapeutic drug monitoring and can cause mucositis. A risk with any agent in pre-cancerous syndrome as immune suppression can decreased tumor immunosurvellence. Its mTOR inhibitors active against lymphomas, especially EBV+ lymphomas. The Goal serum trough is 5-15 ng/ml and can consider PCP prophylaxis but usually not needed.
Other treatments may include drugs like Fansidar, mercaptopurine: More commonly used in Europe. Another is rituximab but this can cause lifelong hypogammaglobulinemia and a splenectomy but there is a >30% risk of pneumococcal sepsis even with vaccination and antibiotic prophylaxis
Situational heat stroke occurs in the absence of exertion. It mostly affects the young and elderly. In the elderly in particular, it can be precipitated by medications that reduce vasodilation and sweating, such as anticholinergic drugs, antihistamines, and diuretics. In this situation, the body's tolerance for high environmental temperature may be insufficient, even at rest.
Heat waves are often followed by a rise in the death rate, and these 'classical hyperthermia' deaths typically involve the elderly and infirm. This is partly because thermoregulation involves cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems which may be inadequate for the additional stress because of the existing burden of aging and disease, further compromised by medications. During the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago, there were at least 700 heat-related deaths. The strongest risk factors were being confined to bed, and living alone, while the risk was reduced for those with working air conditioners and those with access to transportation. Even then, reported deaths may be underestimates as diagnosis can be misclassified as stroke or heart attack.
Those working in industry, in the military, or as first responders may be required to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) against hazards such as chemical agents, gases, fire, small arms and even Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). PPE includes a range of hazmat suits, firefighting turnout gear, body armor and bomb suits, among others. Depending on design, the wearer may be encapsulated in a microclimate, due to an increase in thermal resistance and decrease in vapor permeability. As physical work is performed, the body’s natural thermoregulation (i.e., sweating) becomes ineffective. This is compounded by increased work rates, high ambient temperature and humidity levels, and direct exposure to the sun. The net effect is that desired protection from some environmental threats inadvertently increases the threat of heat stress.
The effect of PPE on hyperthermia has been noted in fighting the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in Western Africa. Doctors and healthcare workers were only able to work 40 minutes at a stretch in their protective suits, fearing heat strokes.
Different genetic defects cause HIgM syndrome, the vast majority are inherited as an X-linked recessive genetic trait and most sufferers are male.
IgM is the form of antibody that all B cells produce initially, before they undergo class switching due to exposure to a recognized antigen. Healthy B cells efficiently switch to other types of antibodies as needed to attack invading bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. In people with hyper IgM syndromes, the B cells keep making IgM antibodies because they can't switch to a different antibody. This results in an overproduction of IgM antibodies and an underproduction of IgA, IgG, and IgE.
Among the presentation consistent with hyper IgM syndrome are the following:
- Infection/"Pneumocystis" pneumonia (PCP), which is common in infants with hyper IgM syndrome, is a serious illness. PCP is one of the most frequent and severe opportunistic infections in people with weakened immune systems. Many CD40 Ligand Deficiency are first diagnosed after having PCP in their first year of life. The fungus is common and is present in over 70% of healthy people’s lungs, however, Hyper IgM patients are not able to fight it off without the administration of Bactrim)
- Hepatitis (Hepatitis C)
- Chronic diarrhea
- Encephalopathy (degenerative)
Chagas disease affects 8 to 10 million people living in endemic Latin American countries, with an additional 300,000–400,000 living in nonendemic countries, including Spain and the United States. An estimated 41,200 new cases occur annually in endemic countries, and 14,400 infants are born with congenital Chagas disease annually. in 2010 it resulted in approximately 10,300 deaths up from 9,300 in 1990.
The disease is present in 18 countries on the American continents, ranging from the southern United States to northern Argentina. Chagas exists in two different ecological zones. In the Southern Cone region, the main vector lives in and around human homes. In Central America and Mexico, the main vector species lives both inside dwellings and in uninhabited areas. In both zones, Chagas occurs almost exclusively in rural areas, where triatomines breed and feed on the more than 150 species from 24 families of domestic and wild mammals, as well as humans, that are the natural reservoirs of "T. cruzi".
Although Triatominae bugs feed on them, birds appear to be immune to infection and therefore are not considered to be a "T. cruzi" reservoir. Even when colonies of insects are eradicated from a house and surrounding domestic animal shelters, they can re-emerge from plants or animals that are part of the ancient, sylvatic (referring to wild animals) infection cycle. This is especially likely in zones with mixed open savannah, with clumps of trees interspersed by human habitation.
The primary wildlife reservoirs for "Trypanosoma cruzi" in the United States include opossums, raccoons, armadillos, squirrels, woodrats, and mice. Opossums are particularly important as reservoirs, because the parasite can complete its life cycle in the anal glands of this animal without having to re-enter the insect vector. Recorded prevalence of the disease in opossums in the U.S. ranges from 8.3% to 37.5%.
Studies on raccoons in the Southeast have yielded infection rates ranging from 47% to as low as 15.5%. Armadillo prevalence studies have been described in Louisiana, and range from a low of 1.1% to 28.8%. Additionally, small rodents, including squirrels, mice, and rats, are important in the sylvatic transmission cycle because of their importance as bloodmeal sources for the insect vectors. A Texas study revealed 17.3% percent "T. cruzi" prevalence in 75 specimens representing four separate small rodent species.
Chronic Chagas disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries, despite the effectiveness of hygienic and preventive measures, such as eliminating the transmitting insects. However, several landmarks have been achieved in the fight against it in Latin America, including a reduction by 72% of the incidence of human infection in children and young adults in the countries of the Southern Cone Initiative, and at least three countries (Uruguay, in 1997, and Chile, in 1999, and Brazil in 2006) have been certified free of vectorial and transfusional transmission. In Argentina, vectorial transmission has been interrupted in 13 of the 19 endemic provinces, and major progress toward this goal has also been made in both Paraguay and Bolivia.
Screening of donated blood, blood components, and solid organ donors, as well as donors of cells, tissues, and cell and tissue products for "T. cruzi" is mandated in all Chagas-endemic countries and has been implemented. Approximately 300,000 infected people live in the United States, which is likely the result of immigration from Latin American countries, and there have been 23 cases acquired from kissing bugs in the United States reported between 1955 and 2014. With increased population movements, the possibility of transmission by blood transfusion became more substantial in the United States. Transfusion blood and tissue products are now actively screened in the U.S., thus addressing and minimizing this risk.
There is currently no vaccine against Chagas disease. Prevention is generally focused on decreasing the numbers of the insect that spreads it ("Triatoma") and decreasing their contact with humans. This is done by using sprays and paints containing insecticides (synthetic pyrethroids), and improving housing and sanitary conditions in rural areas. For urban dwellers, spending vacations and camping out in the wilderness or sleeping at hostels or mud houses in endemic areas can be dangerous; a mosquito net is recommended. Some measures of vector control include:
- A yeast trap can be used for monitoring infestations of certain species of triatomine bugs ("Triatoma sordida", "Triatoma brasiliensis", "Triatoma pseudomaculata", and "Panstrongylus megistus").
- Promising results were gained with the treatment of vector habitats with the fungus "Beauveria bassiana".
- Targeting the symbionts of Triatominae through paratransgenesis can be done.
A number of potential vaccines are currently being tested. Vaccination with "Trypanosoma rangeli" has produced positive results in animal models. More recently, the potential of DNA vaccines for immunotherapy of acute and chronic Chagas disease is being tested by several research groups.
Blood transfusion was formerly the second-most common mode of transmission for Chagas disease, but the development and implementation of blood bank screening tests has dramatically reduced this risk in the 21st century. Blood donations in all endemic Latin American countries undergo Chagas screening, and testing is expanding in countries, such as France, Spain and the United States, that have significant or growing populations of immigrants from endemic areas. In Spain, donors are evaluated with a questionnaire to identify individuals at risk of Chagas exposure for screening tests.
The US FDA has approved two Chagas tests, including one approved in April 2010, and has published guidelines that recommend testing of all donated blood and tissue products. While these tests are not required in US, an estimated 75–90% of the blood supply is currently tested for Chagas, including all units collected by the American Red Cross, which accounts for 40% of the U.S. blood supply. The Chagas Biovigilance Network reports current incidents of Chagas-positive blood products in the United States, as reported by labs using the screening test approved by the FDA in 2007.
Approximately three percent of people who are suffering from alcoholism experience psychosis during acute intoxication or withdrawal. Alcohol related psychosis may manifest itself through a kindling mechanism. The mechanism of alcohol-related psychosis is due to the long-term effects of alcohol resulting in distortions to neuronal membranes, gene expression, as well as thiamin deficiency. It is possible in some cases that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can cause the development of a chronic substance induced psychotic disorder, i.e. schizophrenia. The effects of an alcohol-related psychosis include an increased risk of depression and suicide as well as causing psychosocial impairments.
Excited delirium occurs most commonly in males with a history of serious mental illness or acute or chronic drug abuse, particularly stimulant drugs such as cocaine and MDPV. Alcohol withdrawal or head trauma may also contribute to the condition.
A majority of fatal case involved men.
People with excited delirium commonly have acute drug intoxication, generally involving PCP, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), cocaine, or methamphetamine. Other drugs that may contribute to death are antipsychotics.
Various psychoactive substances (both legal and illegal) have been implicated in causing, exacerbating, or precipitating psychotic states or disorders in users, with varying levels of evidence. This may be upon intoxication, for a more prolonged period after use, or upon withdrawal. Individuals who have a substance induced psychosis tend to have a greater awareness of their psychosis and tend to have higher levels of suicidal thinking compared to individuals who have a primary psychotic illness. Drugs commonly alleged to induce psychotic symptoms include alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, cathinones, psychedelic drugs (such as LSD and psilocybin), κ-opioid receptor agonists (such as enadoline and salvinorin A) and NMDA receptor antagonists (such as phencyclidine and ketamine).
The pathophysiology of excited delirium has been unclear, but likely involves multiple factors. These may include positional asphyxia, hyperthermia, drug toxicity, and/or catecholamine-induced fatal cardiac arrhythmias.
Risk factors for opioid overdose include opioid dependence, injecting opioids, using high doses of opioids, and use together with alcohol or benzodiazepines. The risk is particularly high following detoxification. Dependence on prescription opioids can occur from their use to treat chronic pain.
Permanent brain damage may occur due to cerebral hypoxia or opioid-induced neurotoxicity.
PKD is one of the most common hereditary diseases in the United States, affecting more than 600,000 people. It is the cause of nearly 10% of all end-stage renal disease. It equally affects men, women, and all races. PKD occurs in some animals as well as humans.