Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
Funded by The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy; Grant: 01MD19013D, Smart-MD Project, Digital Technologies
Viral pneumonia occurs in about 200 million people a year which includes about 100 million children and 100 million adults.
Common causes of viral pneumonia are:
- "Influenza virus" A and B
- "Respiratory syncytial virus" (RSV)
- "Human parainfluenza viruses" (in children)
Rarer viruses that commonly result in pneumonia include:
- "Adenoviruses" (in military recruits)
- "Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus" (SARS coronavirus)
- "Middle East respiratory syndrome virus" (MERS coronavirus)
Viruses that primarily cause other diseases, but sometimes cause pneumonia include:
- "Herpes simplex virus" (HSV), mainly in newborns or young children
- "Varicella-zoster virus" (VZV)
- "Measles virus"
- "Rubella virus"
- "Cytomegalovirus" (CMV), mainly in people with immune system problems
- "Smallpox virus"
- "dengue virus"
The most commonly identified agents in children are "respiratory syncytial virus", "rhinovirus", "human metapneumovirus", "human bocavirus", and "parainfluenza viruses".
Vaccination helps prevent bronchopneumonia, mostly against influenza viruses, adenoviruses, measles, rubella, streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae, diphtheria, bacillus anthracis, chickenpox, and bordetella pertussis.
Lower respiratory infectious disease is the fifth-leading cause of death and the combined leading infectious cause of death, being responsible for 2·74 million deaths worldwide. This is generally similar to estimates in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study.
This total only accounts for "Streptococcus pneumoniae" and "Haemophilus Influenzae" infections and does not account for atypical or nosocomial causes of lower respiratory disease, therefore underestimating total disease burden.
Bacteria are the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with "Streptococcus pneumoniae" isolated in nearly 50% of cases. Other commonly isolated bacteria include "Haemophilus influenzae" in 20%, "Chlamydophila pneumoniae" in 13%, and "Mycoplasma pneumoniae" in 3% of cases; "Staphylococcus aureus"; "Moraxella catarrhalis"; "Legionella pneumophila" and Gram-negative bacilli. A number of drug-resistant versions of the above infections are becoming more common, including drug-resistant "Streptococcus pneumoniae" (DRSP) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
The spreading of organisms is facilitated when risk factors are present. Alcoholism is associated with "Streptococcus pneumoniae", anaerobic organisms, and "Mycobacterium tuberculosis"; smoking facilitates the effects of "Streptococcus pneumoniae", "Haemophilus influenzae", "Moraxella catarrhalis", and "Legionella pneumophila". Exposure to birds is associated with "Chlamydia psittaci"; farm animals with "Coxiella burnetti"; aspiration of stomach contents with anaerobic organisms; and cystic fibrosis with "Pseudomonas aeruginosa" and "Staphylococcus aureus". "Streptococcus pneumoniae" is more common in the winter, and should be suspected in persons aspirating a large amount of anaerobic organisms.
CAP is common worldwide, and a major cause of death in all age groups. In children, most deaths (over two million a year) occur in newborn period. According to a World Health Organization estimate, one in three newborn deaths are from pneumonia. Mortality decreases with age until late adulthood, with the elderly at risk for CAP and its associated mortality.
More CAP cases occur during the winter than at other times of the year. CAP is more common in males than females, and more common in black people than Caucasians. Patients with underlying illnesses (such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, COPD, tobacco smoking, alcoholism or immune-system problems) have an increased risk of developing pneumonia.
Smoking cessation and reducing indoor air pollution, such as that from cooking indoors with wood or dung, are both recommended. Smoking appears to be the single biggest risk factor for pneumococcal pneumonia in otherwise-healthy adults. Hand hygiene and coughing into one's sleeve may also be effective preventative measures. Wearing surgical masks by the sick may also prevent illness.
Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and malnutrition) can decrease the risk of pneumonia. In children less than 6 months of age, exclusive breast feeding reduces both the risk and severity of disease. In those with HIV/AIDS and a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/uL the antibiotic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole decreases the risk of "Pneumocystis pneumonia" and is also useful for prevention in those that are immunocomprised but do not have HIV.
Testing pregnant women for Group B Streptococcus and "Chlamydia trachomatis", and administering antibiotic treatment, if needed, reduces rates of pneumonia in infants; preventive measures for HIV transmission from mother to child may also be efficient. Suctioning the mouth and throat of infants with meconium-stained amniotic fluid has not been found to reduce the rate of aspiration pneumonia and may cause potential harm, thus this practice is not recommended in the majority of situations. In the frail elderly good oral health care may lower the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Zinc supplementation in children 2 months to five years old appears to reduce rates of pneumonia.
When comparing the bacterial-caused atypical pneumonias with these caused by real viruses (excluding bacteria that were wrongly considered as viruses), the term "atypical pneumonia" almost always implies a bacterial cause and is contrasted with viral pneumonia.
Known viral causes of atypical pneumonia include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, parainfluenza, adenovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
The most common causative organisms are (often intracellular living) bacteria:
- "Chlamydophila pneumoniae": Mild form of pneumonia with relatively mild symptoms.
- "Chlamydophila psittaci": Causes psittacosis.
- "Coxiella burnetii": Causes Q fever.
- "Francisella tularensis": Causes tularemia.
- "Legionella pneumophila": Causes a severe form of pneumonia with a relatively high mortality rate, known as legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease.
- "Mycoplasma pneumoniae": Usually occurs in younger age groups and may be associated with neurological and systemic (e.g. rashes) symptoms.
Atypical pneumonia can also have a fungal, protozoan or viral cause.In the past, most organisms were difficult to culture. However, newer techniques aid in the definitive identification of the pathogen, which may lead to more individualized treatment plans.
Several studies found that healthcare-associated pneumonia is the second most common type of pneumonia, occurring less commonly than community-acquired pneumonia but more frequently than hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In a recent observational study, the rates for CAP, HCAP and HAP were 60%, 25% and 15% respectively. Patients with HCAP are older and more commonly have simultaneous health problems (such as previous stroke, heart failure and diabetes).
The number of residents in long term care facilities is expected to rise dramatically over the next 30 years. These older adults are known to develop pneumonia 10 times more than their community-dwelling peers, and hospital admittance rates are 30 times higher.
CAP may be prevented by treating underlying illnesses increasing its risk, by smoking cessation and vaccination of children and adults. Vaccination against "haemophilus influenzae" and "streptococcus pneumoniae" in the first year of life has reduced their role in childhood CAP. A vaccine against "streptococcus pneumoniae", available for adults, is recommended for healthy individuals over 65 and all adults with COPD, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, alcoholism, cerebrospinal fluid leaks or who have had a splenectomy. Re-vaccination may be required after five or ten years.
Patients who are vaccinated against "streptococcus pneumoniae", health professionals, nursing-home residents and pregnant women should be vaccinated annually against influenza. During an outbreak, drugs such as amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir and oseltamivir have been demonstrated to prevent influenza.
Nursing home-acquired pneumonia is an important subgroup of HCAP. Residents of long term care facilities may become infected through their contacts with the healthcare system; as such, the microbes responsible for their pneumonias may be different from those traditionally seen in community-dwelling patients, requiring therapy with different antibiotics. Other groups include patients who are admitted as a day case for regular hemodialysis or intravenous infusion (for example, chemotherapy). Especially in the very old and in demented patients, HCAP is likely to present with atypical symptoms.
Gram-negative bacteria are seen less frequently: "Haemophilus influenzae" (), "Klebsiella pneumoniae" (), "Escherichia coli" (), "Pseudomonas aeruginosa" (), "Bordetella pertussis", and "Moraxella catarrhalis" are the most common.
These bacteria often live in the gut and enter the lungs when contents of the gut (such as vomit or faeces) are inhaled.
Atypical bacteria causing pneumonia are "Coxiella burnetii", "Chlamydophila pneumoniae" (), "Mycoplasma pneumoniae" (), and "Legionella pneumophila".
The term "atypical" does not relate to how commonly these organisms cause pneumonia, how well it responds to common antibiotics or how typical the symptoms are; it refers instead to the fact that these organisms have atypical or absent cell wall structures and do not take up Gram stain in the same manner as gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.
Pneumonia caused by "Yersinia pestis" is usually called pneumonic plague.
Pontiac fever is known to have a short incubation period of 1 to 3 days. No fatalities have been reported and cases resolve spontaneously without treatment. It is often not reported. Age, gender, and smoking do not seem to be risk factors. Pontiac fever seems to affect young people in the age medians of 29, 30, and 32. Pathogenesis of the Pontiac fever is poorly known.
"Klebsiella" resistant strains have been recorded in USA with a roughly threefold increase in Chicago cases, quarantined individuals in Israel, United Kingdom and parts of Europe, possible ground zero, or location of emergence, is the India-Pakistan border.
A strain known as Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (CRKP) was estimated to be involved in 350 cases in Los Angeles county between June and December 2010.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is a type of bacterial pneumonia that is specifically caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. "S. pneumoniae" is also called pneumococcus. It is the most common bacterial pneumonia found in adults. The estimated number of Americans with pneumococcal pneumonia is 900,000 annually, with almost 400,000 cases hospitalized and fatalities accounting for 5-7% of these cases.
The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia can occur suddenly, typically presenting as a severe chill, later including a severe fever, cough, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and chest pains. Other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches could also accompany the original symptoms. Sometimes the coughing can produce rusty or blood-streaked sputum. In 25% of cases, a parapneumonic effusion may occur. Chest X-rays will typically show lobar consolidation or patchy infiltrates.
In most cases, once pneumococcal pneumonia has been identified, doctors will prescribe antibiotics. These antibiotic usually help alleviate and eliminate symptoms between 12 and 36 hours after being taken. Despite most antibiotics' effectiveness in treating the disease, sometimes the bacteria can resist the antibiotics, causing symptoms to worsen. Additionally, age and health of the infected patient can contribute to the effectiveness of the antibiotics. A vaccine has also been developed for the prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia, recommended to children under age five as well as adults over the age of 65.
While it has been commonly known that the influenza virus increases one's chances of contracting pneumonia or meningitis caused by the streptococcus pneumonaie bacteria, new medical research in mice indicates that the flu is actually a necessary component for the transmission of the disease. Researcher Dimitri Diavatopoulo from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands describes his observations in mice, stating that in these animals, the spread of the bacteria only occurs between animals already infected with the influenza virus, not between those without it. He says that these findings have only been inclusive in mice, however, he believes that the same could be true for humans.
The fatality rate of Legionnaires' disease has ranged from 5% to 30% during various outbreaks and approaches 50% for nosocomial infections, especially when treatment with antibiotics is delayed. Hospital-acquired "Legionella" pneumonia has a fatality rate of 28%, and the principal source of infection in such cases is the drinking-water distribution system.
Pontiac fever does not spread from person to person. It is acquired through aersolization of water droplets and/or potting soil containing "Legionella" bacteria.
While antibiotics with activity specifically against "M. pneumoniae" are often used (e.g., erythromycin, doxycycline), it is unclear if these result in greater benefit than using antibiotics without specific activity against this organism in those with an infection acquired in the community.
Since the start of the AIDS epidemic, PCP has been closely associated with AIDS. Because it only occurs in an immunocompromised host, it may be the first clue to a new AIDS diagnosis if the patient has no other reason to be immunocompromised (e.g. taking immunosuppressive drugs for organ transplant). An unusual rise in the number of PCP cases in North America, noticed when physicians began requesting large quantities of the rarely used antibiotic pentamidine, was the first clue to the existence of AIDS in the early 1980s.
Prior to the development of more effective treatments, PCP was a common and rapid cause of death in persons living with AIDS. Much of the incidence of PCP has been reduced by instituting a standard practice of using oral co-trimoxazole (Bactrim / Septra) to prevent the disease in people with CD4 counts less than 200/μL. In populations that do not have access to preventive treatment, PCP continues to be a major cause of death in AIDS.
In terms of the pathophysiology of Klebsiella pneumonia we see neutrophil myeloperoxidase defense against "K P".Oxidative inactivation of elastase is involved, while LBP helps transfer bacteria cell wall elements to the cells.
"Mycoplasma pneumoniae" is spread through respiratory droplet transmission. Once attached to the mucosa of a host organism, "M. pneumoniae" extracts nutrients, grows, and reproduces by binary fission. Attachment sites include the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. The infection caused by this bacterium is called atypical pneumonia because of its protracted course and lack of sputum production and wealth of extrapulmonary symptoms. Chronic "Mycoplasma" infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatological diseases.
"Mycoplasma" atypical pneumonia can be complicated by Stevens–Johnson syndrome, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cardiovascular diseases, encephalitis, or Guillain–Barré syndrome.
Although the risk of Legionnaires' disease being spread by large-scale water systems cannot be eliminated, it can be greatly reduced by writing and enforcing a highly detailed, systematic water safety plan appropriate for the specific type of facility involved (office building, hospital, hotel, spa, cruise ship, etc.) Some of the elements that such a plan may include are the following:
- Keeping water temperature either above or below the range in which the "Legionella" bacterium thrives.
- Preventing stagnation, for example by removing from a network of pipes any sections that have no outlet (dead ends). Where stagnation is unavoidable, for example when a wing of a hotel is closed for the off-season, systems must be thoroughly disinfected just prior to resuming normal operation.
- Preventing the buildup of biofilm, for example by not using (or by replacing) construction materials that encourage its development, and by reducing the quantity of nutrients for bacterial growth that enter the system.
- Periodic disinfection of the system, by high heat or a chemical biocide, and the use of chlorination where appropriate.
- System design (or renovation) that reduces the production of aerosols and reduces human exposure to them, for example by directing them well away from building air intakes.
An effective water safety plan will also cover such matters as training, record-keeping, communication among staff, contingency plans and management responsibilities. The format and content of the plan may be prescribed by public health laws or regulations. There is tentative evidence for the treatment of the water with copper-silver ionization or ultraviolet light.
There has been evidence of limited, but not sustained spread of MERS-CoV from person to person, both in households as well as in health care settings like hospitals. Most transmission has occurred "in the circumstances of close contact with severely ill persons in healthcare or household settings" and there is no evidence of transmission from asymptomatic cases. Cluster sizes have ranged from 1 to 26 people, with an average of 2.7.