Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
Funded by The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy; Grant: 01MD19013D, Smart-MD Project, Digital Technologies
"Pharyngoconjunctival fever" is a specific presentation of adenovirus infection, manifested as:
- high fever that lasts 4–5 days
- pharyngitis (sore throat)
- conjunctivitis (inflamed eyes, usually without pus formation like pink eye)
- enlargement of the lymph nodes of the neck
- headache, malaise, and weakness
- Incubation period of 5–9 days
It usually occurs in the age group 5–18. It is often found in summer camps and during the spring and fall in schools. In Japan, the illness is commonly referred to as "pool fever" as it is often spread via public swimming pools.
The incubation period is 5–7 days (with a range of 3–10). Symptoms can include a harsh, dry cough, retching, sneezing, snorting, gagging or vomiting in response to light pressing of the trachea or after excitement or exercise. The presence of a fever varies from case to case.
Apart from respiratory involvement, illnesses and presentations of adenovirus include gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and rash illness. Symptoms of respiratory illness caused by adenovirus infection range from the common cold syndrome to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Patients with compromised immune systems are especially susceptible to severe complications of adenovirus infection. Acute respiratory disease (ARD), first recognized among military recruits during World War II, can be caused by adenovirus infections during conditions of crowding and stress.
Coughing and rattling are common, most severe in young, such as broilers, and rapidly spreading in chickens confined or at proximity. Morbidity is 100% in non-vaccinated flocks. Mortality varies according to the virus strain (up to 60% in non-vaccinated flocks). Respiratory signs will subdue within two weeks. However, for some strains, a kidney infection may follow, causing mortality by toxemia. Younger chickens may die of tracheal occlusion by mucus (lower end) or by kidney failure. The infection may prolong in the cecal tonsils.
In laying hens, there can be transient respiratory signs, but mortality may be negligible. However, egg production drops sharply. A great percentage of produced eggs are misshapen and discolored. Many laid eggs have a thin or soft shell and poor albumen (watery), and are not marketable or proper for incubation. Normally-colored eggs, indicative of normal shells for instance in brown chickens, have a normal hatchability.
Egg yield curve may never return to normal. Milder strains may allow normal production after around eight weeks.
Initial symptoms are flu-like and may include fever, myalgia, lethargy symptoms, cough, sore throat, and other nonspecific symptoms. The only symptom common to all patients appears to be a fever above . SARS may eventually lead to shortness of breath and/or pneumonia; either direct viral pneumonia or first bacterial pneumonia.
A dog that survives distemper will continue to have both nonlife-threatening and life-threatening signs throughout its lifespan. The most prevalent nonlife-threatening symptom is hard pad disease. This occurs when a dog experiences the thickening of the skin on the pads of its paws as well as on the end of its nose. Another lasting symptom commonly is enamel hypoplasia. Puppies, especially, will have damage to the enamel of teeth that are not completely formed or those that have not yet grown through the gums. This is a result of the virus's killing the cells responsible for manufacturing the tooth enamel. These affected teeth tend to erode quickly.
Life-threatening signs usually include those due to the degeneration of the nervous system. Dogs that have been infected with distemper tend to suffer a progressive deterioration of mental abilities and motor skills. With time, the dog can acquire more severe seizures, paralysis, reduction in sight and incoordination. These dogs are usually humanely euthanized because of the immense pain and suffering they face.
About 80% of infected dogs with H3N8 show symptoms, usually mild (the other 20% have subclinical infections), and the fatality rate for Greyhounds in early outbreaks was 5 to 8%, although the overall fatality rate in the general pet and shelter population is probably less than 1%. Symptoms of the mild form include a cough that lasts for 10 to 30 days and possibly a greenish nasal discharge. Dogs with the more severe form may have a high fever and pneumonia. Pneumonia in these dogs is not caused by the influenza virus, but by secondary bacterial infections. The fatality rate of dogs that develop pneumonia secondary to canine influenza can reach 50% if not given proper treatment. Necropsies in dogs that die from the disease have revealed severe hemorrhagic pneumonia and evidence of vasculitis.
In dogs, signs of distemper vary widely from no signs, to mild respiratory signs indistinguishable from kennel cough, to severe pneumonia with vomiting, bloody diarrhea and death.
Commonly observed signs are a runny nose, vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration, excessive salivation, coughing and/or labored breathing, loss of appetite, and weight loss. If neurological signs develop, incontinence may ensue. Central nervous system signs include a localized involuntary twitching of muscles or groups of muscles, seizures with salivation and jaw movements commonly described as "chewing gum fits", or more appropriately as "distemper myoclonus". As the condition progresses, the seizures worsen and advance to grand mal convulsions followed by death of the animal. The animal may also show signs of sensitivity to light, incoordination, circling, increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli such as pain or touch, and deterioration of motor capabilities. Less commonly, they may lead to blindness and paralysis. The length of the systemic disease may be as short as 10 days, or the start of neurological signs may not come until several weeks or months later. Those few that survive usually have a small tic or twitch of varying levels of severity. With time, this tic will usually diminish somewhat in its severity.
Although kennel cough is considered to be a multifactorial infection, there are two main forms. The first is more mild and is caused by B. bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus infections, without complications from canine distemper virus (CDV) or canine adenovirus (CAV). This form occurs most regularly in autumn, and can be distinguished by symptoms such as a retching cough and vomiting. The second form has a more complex combination of causative organisms including CDV and CAV. It typically occurs in dogs that have not been vaccinated and it is not seasonal. Symptoms are more severe than the first form, and may include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and fever in addition to a hacking cough.
In the United States it is estimated that there are 5 million children with lower respiratory infections (LRI) each year. Estimates have shown that HPIV-1, HPIV-2 and HPIV-3 have been linked with up to a third of these infections. Upper respiratory infections (URI) are also important in the context of HPIV, however are caused to a lesser extent by the virus. The highest rates of serious HPIV illnesses occur among young children and surveys have shown that about 75% of children aged 5 or older have antibodies to HPIV-1.
For infants and young children it has been estimated that ~25% will develop 'clinically significant disease.'
Repeated infection throughout the life of the host is not uncommon and symptoms of later breakouts include upper respiratory tract illness, such as cold and a sore throat. The incubation period for all four serotypes is 1 to 7 days. In immunosuppressed people, parainfluenza virus infections can cause severe pneumonia which can be fatal.
HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 have been demonstrated to be the principal causative agent behind croup (laryngotracheobronchitis) which is a viral disease of the upper airway and is mainly problematic in children aged 6–48 months of age. Biennial epidemics starting in Autumn are associated with both HPIV-1 and 2 however, HPIV-2 can also have yearly outbreaks. Additionally, HPIV-1 tends to cause biennial outbreaks of croup in the fall. In the United States, large peaks have presently been occurring during odd-numbered years.
HPIV-3 has been closely associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia and principally targets those aged <1 year.
HPIV-4 remains infrequently detected. However, it is now believed to be more common than previously thought, but is less likely to cause severe disease. By the age of 10, the majority of children are sero-positive for HPIV-4 infection which may be indicative of a large proportion of asymptomatic or mild infections.
Important epidemiological factors that are associated with a higher risk of infection and mortality are those who are immuno-compromised and may be taken ill with more extreme forms of LRI. Associations between HPIVs and neurologic disease are known, for example hospitalisation with certain HPIVs has a strong association with febrile seizures. HPIV-4B has the strongest association (up to 62%) followed by hPIV-3 and 1.
HPIVs have also been linked with rare cases of virally caused meningitis and Guillain–Barré syndrome.
HPIVs are spread person to person by contact with infected secretions through respiratory droplets or contaminated surfaces or objects. Infection can occur when infectious material contacts mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, or nose, and possibly through the inhalation of droplets generated by a sneeze or cough. HPIVs can remain infectious in airborne droplets for over an hour.
Overall, HPIVs remain best known for its effects on the respiratory system and this appears to be where the majority of the focus has been upon.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza. HPIVs are a group of four distinct single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. These viruses are closely associated with both human and veterinary disease. Virions are approximately 150–250 nm in size and contain negative sense RNA with a genome encompassing ~15,000 nucleotides.
The viruses can be detected via cell culture, immunofluorescent microscopy, and PCR. HPIVs remain the second main cause of hospitalisation in children under 5 years of age suffering from a respiratory illness (only respiratory syncytial virus causes more respiratory hospitalisations for this age group).
Viral pneumonia is a pneumonia caused by a virus.
Viruses are one of the two major causes of pneumonia, the other being bacteria; less common causes are fungi and parasites. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children, while in adults bacteria are a more common cause.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus strain that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness. It is colloquially known as the coronavirus, and was previously referred to by its provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It is contagious in humans, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Because the strain was first discovered in Wuhan, China, it is sometimes referred to as "Wuhan virus" or "Wuhan coronavirus". Since the WHO discourages the use of names based on locations such as MERS, and to avoid confusion with the disease SARS, it sometimes refers to SARS-CoV-2 as "the COVID-19 virus" in public health communications. The general public frequently calls both SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes "coronavirus", but scientists typically use more precise terminology.
Taxonomically, SARS-CoV-2 is a strain of Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). It is believed to have zoonotic origins and has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, suggesting it emerged from a bat-borne virus. An intermediate animal reservoir such as a pangolin is also thought to be involved in its introduction to humans. The virus shows little genetic diversity, indicating that the spillover event introducing SARS-CoV-2 to humans is likely to have occurred in late 2019.
Epidemiological studies estimate each infection results in 1.4 to 3.9 new ones when no members of the community are immune and no preventive measures taken. The virus is primarily spread between people through close contact and via respiratory droplets produced from coughs or sneezes. It mainly enters human cells by binding to the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).
Symptoms of viral pneumonia include fever, non-productive cough, runny nose, and systemic symptoms (e.g. myalgia, headache). Different viruses cause different symptoms.
SARS may be "suspected" in a patient who has:
- Any of the symptoms, including a fever of or higher, and
- Either a history of:
1. Contact (sexual or casual) with someone with a diagnosis of SARS within the last 10 days OR
2. Travel to any of the regions identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as areas with recent local transmission of SARS (affected regions as of 10 May 2003 were parts of China, Hong Kong, Singapore and the town of Geraldton, Ontario, Canada).
For a case to be considered "probable," a chest X-ray must be positive for atypical pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has added the category of "laboratory confirmed SARS" for patients who would otherwise be considered ""probable"" but who have not yet had a positive chest X-ray changes, but have tested positive for SARS based on one of the approved tests (ELISA, immunofluorescence or PCR).
When it comes to the chest X-ray the appearance of SARS is not always uniform but generally appears as an abnormality with patchy infiltrates.
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens. The disease is caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, and characterized by respiratory signs including gasping, coughing, sneezing, tracheal rales, and nasal discharge. In young chickens, severe respiratory distress may occur. In layers, respiratory distress, nephritis, decrease in egg production, and loss of internal (watery egg white) and external (fragile, soft, irregular or rough shells, shell-less) egg quality are reported.
Cats with Avian Influenza exhibit symptoms that can result in death. They are one of the few species that can get Avian Influenza. The specific virus that they get is H5N1, which is a subtype of Avian Influenza. In order to get the virus, cats need to be in contact with waterfowl, poultry, or uncooked poultry that are infected. Two of the main organs that the virus affects are the lungs and liver.
Infectious diseases causing ILI include malaria, acute HIV/AIDS infection, herpes, hepatitis C, Lyme disease, rabies, myocarditis, Q fever, dengue fever, poliomyelitis, pneumonia, measles, and many others.
Pharmaceutical drugs that may cause ILI include many biologics such as interferons and monoclonal antibodies. Chemotherapeutic agents also commonly cause flu-like symptoms. Other drugs associated with a flu-like syndrome include bisphosphonates, caspofungin, and levamisole. A flu-like syndrome can also be caused by an influenza vaccine or other vaccines, and by opioid withdrawal in addicts.
A cat that is infected with a high dose of the virus can show signs of fever, lethargy, and dyspnea. There have even been recorded cases where a cat has neurological symptoms such as circling or ataxia.
In a case in February 2004, a 2-year-old male cat was panting and convulsing on top of having a fever two days prior to death. This cat also had lesions that were identified as renal congestion, pulmonary congestion, edema, and pneumonia. Upon inspection, the cat also had cerebral congestion, conjunctivitis, and hemorrhaging in the serosae of the intestines.
However, a cat that is infected with a low dose of the virus may not necessarily show symptoms. Though they may be asymptomatic, they can still transfer small amounts of the virus.
Direct transmission of a swine flu virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible (zoonotic swine flu). In all, 50 cases are known to have occurred since the first report in medical literature in 1958, which have resulted in a total of six deaths. Of these six people, one was pregnant, one had leukemia, one had Hodgkin's lymphoma and two were known to be previously healthy. Despite these apparently low numbers of infections, the true rate of infection may be higher, since most cases only cause a very mild disease, and will probably never be reported or diagnosed.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in humans the symptoms of the 2009 "swine flu" H1N1 virus are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general. Symptoms include fever; cough, sore throat, watery eyes, body aches, shortness of breath, headache, weight loss, chills, sneezing, runny nose, coughing, dizziness, abdominal pain, lack of appetite and fatigue. The 2009 outbreak has shown an increased percentage of patients reporting diarrhea and vomiting as well. The 2009 H1N1 virus is not zoonotic swine flu, as it is not transmitted from pigs to humans, but from person to person through airborne droplets.
Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of "probable" swine flu requires not only symptoms, but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person's recent and past medical history. For example, during the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States, the CDC advised physicians to "consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five U.S. states that have reported swine flu cases or in Mexico during the seven days preceding their illness onset." A diagnosis of "confirmed" swine flu requires laboratory testing of a respiratory sample (a simple nose and throat swab).
The most common cause of death is respiratory failure. Other causes of death are pneumonia (leading to sepsis), high fever (leading to neurological problems), dehydration (from excessive vomiting and diarrhea), electrolyte imbalance and kidney failure. Fatalities are more likely in young children and the elderly.
In swine, an influenza infection produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite. In some cases the infection can cause abortion. Although mortality is usually low (around 1–4%), the virus can produce weight loss and poor growth, causing economic loss to farmers. Infected pigs can lose up to 12 pounds of body weight over a three- to four-week period. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses are able to bind to, which leads to the virus being able to evolve and mutate into different forms. Influenza A is responsible for infecting swine, and was first identified in the summer of 1918. Pigs have often been seen as "mixing vessels", which help to change and evolve strains of disease that are then passed on to other mammals, such as humans.
Canine influenza (dog flu) is influenza occurring in canine animals. Canine influenza is caused by varieties of influenzavirus A, such as equine influenza virus H3N8, which in 2004 was discovered to cause disease in dogs. Because of the lack of previous exposure to this virus, dogs have no natural immunity to it. Therefore, the disease is rapidly transmitted between individual dogs. Canine influenza may be endemic in some regional dog populations of the United States. It is a disease with a high morbidity (incidence of symptoms) but a low incidence of death.
A newer form was identified in Asia during the 2000s and has since caused outbreaks in the US as well. It is a mutation of H3N2 that adapted from its avian influenza origins. Vaccines have been developed for both strains.
Approximately 33% of people with influenza are asymptomatic.
Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. Usually the first symptoms are chills or a chilly sensation, but fever is also common early in the infection, with body temperatures ranging from 38 to 39 °C (approximately 100 to 103 °F). Many people are so ill that they are confined to bed for several days, with aches and pains throughout their bodies, which are worse in their backs and legs. Symptoms of influenza may include:
- Fever and extreme coldness (chills shivering, shaking (rigor))
- Nasal congestion
- Runny nose
- Body aches, especially joints and throat
- Irritated, watering eyes
- Reddened eyes, skin (especially face), mouth, throat and nose
- Petechial rash
- In children, gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain, (may be severe in children with influenza B)
It can be difficult to distinguish between the common cold and influenza in the early stages of these infections. Influenza is a mixture of symptoms of common cold and pneumonia, body ache, headache, and fatigue. Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. The symptoms most reliably seen in influenza are shown in the adjacent table.
Since antiviral drugs are effective in treating influenza if given early (see treatment section, below), it can be important to identify cases early. Of the symptoms listed above, the combinations of fever with cough, sore throat and/or nasal congestion can improve diagnostic accuracy. Two decision analysis studies suggest that "during local outbreaks" of influenza, the prevalence will be over 70%, and thus patients with any of these combinations of symptoms may be treated with neuraminidase inhibitors without testing. Even in the absence of a local outbreak, treatment may be justified in the elderly during the influenza season as long as the prevalence is over 15%.
The available laboratory tests for influenza continue to improve. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) maintains an up-to-date summary of available laboratory tests. According to the CDC, rapid diagnostic tests have a sensitivity of 50–75% and specificity of 90–95% when compared with viral culture. These tests may be especially useful during the influenza season (prevalence=25%) but in the absence of a local outbreak, or peri-influenza season (prevalence=10%).
Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. The obvious symptom is trouble breathing. In addition, if a child (or presumably an adult) seems to be getting better and then relapses with a high fever, that is a danger sign since this relapse can be bacterial pneumonia.
Paravaccinia virus presents itself with blisters, nodules, or lesions about 4 mm in diameter, typically in the area that has made contact with livestock that is infected with bovine papular stomatitis. Lesions may begin forming as late as three weeks after contact has been made with an infected animal. In rare cases, lesions may be seen systemic. General signs of infection are also common, such as fever and fatigue.
Infected livestock may present with blisters or lesions on their udders or snout. Often, however, infected livestock show little to no symptoms.
Cat flu is the common name for a feline upper respiratory tract disease. While feline upper respiratory disease can be caused by several different pathogens, there are few symptoms that they have in common.
While Avian Flu can also infect cats, Cat flu is generally a misnomer, since it usually does not refer to an infection by an influenza virus. Instead, it is a syndrome, a term referring to the fact that patients display a number of symptoms that can be caused by one or more of the following infectious agents (pathogens):
1. Feline herpes virus causing feline viral rhinotracheitis (cat common cold, this is the disease that is closely similar to cat flu)
2. Feline calicivirus—(cat respiratory disease)
3. "Bordetella bronchiseptica"—(cat kennel cough)
4. "Chlamydophila felis"—(chlamydia)
In South Africa the term cat flu is also used to refer to Canine Parvo Virus. This is misleading, as transmission of the Canine Parvo Virus rarely involves cats.