Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
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Porcine enzootic pneumonia is caused by "Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" and describes an important respiratory disease of pigs.
It is part of the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex along with Swine Influenza, PRRS and Porcine circovirus 2, and even though on its own it is quite a mild disease, it predisposes to secondary infections with organisms such as "Pasteurella multocida".
Clinical signs are most commonly seen in pigs over 8 weeks of age, and the disease occurs worldwide. Transmission is horizontal and vertical from sows.
The several forms of the infection are:
- Skin/subcutaneous tissue disease is a septic phlegmon that develops classically in the hand and forearm after a cat bite. Inflammatory signs are very rapid to develop; in 1 or 2 hours, edema, severe pain, and serosanguineous exudate appear. Fever, moderate or very high, can be seen, along with vomiting, headache, and diarrhea. Lymphangitis is common. Complications are possible, in the form of septic arthritis, osteitis, or evolution to chronicity.
- Sepsis is very rare, but can be as fulminant as septicaemic plague, with high fever, rigors, and vomiting, followed by shock and coagulopathy.
- Pneumonia disease is also rare and appears in patients with some chronic pulmonary pathology. It usually presents as bilateral consolidating pneumonia, sometimes very severe.
- Zoonosis, pasteurellosis can be transmitted to humans through cats.
Other locations are possible, such as septic arthritis, meningitis, and acute endocarditis, but are very rare.
Pigs usually cough and may show more severe respiratory signs if secondary bacteria have invaded. This may lead to signs of pneumonia and systemic involvement.
Diagnosis relies on culture and isolation of the bacteria but this can be challenging.
PCR, ELISA, fluorescent antibody testing and post-mortem findings all help in making the diagnosis.
Diagnosis is made with isolation of "Pasteurella multocida" in a normally sterile site (blood, pus, or cerebrospinal fluid).
A horse with strangles will typically develop abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck causing coughing fits and difficulty swallowing. Clinical signs include fever up to 106 °F and yellow coloured nasal discharge from both the nose and eyes.
Abscesses may form in other areas of the body, such as the abdomen, lungs and brain. This is considered a chronic form of strangles called "bastard strangles" and can have serious implications if the abscesses rupture. Horses develop this form of strangles when their immune systems are compromised or if the bacteria rapidly invades the body.
Strangles has a 8.1% mortality rate. Mortality is lower in cases without complications than it is in cases of bastard strangles. The disease is very contagious and morbidity is high. Precautions to limit the spread of the illness are necessary and those affected are normally isolated. An isolation period of 4–6 weeks is usually necessary to ensure that the disease is not still incubating before ending the quarantine.
"Mycoplasma" pneumonia (also known as "walking pneumonia" because it can spread bilaterally (“walk”) from one lung to the other) is a form of bacterial pneumonia caused by the bacterial species "Mycoplasma pneumoniae".
Symptoms of viral pneumonia include fever, non-productive cough, runny nose, and systemic symptoms (e.g. myalgia, headache). Different viruses cause different symptoms.
The disease is spread by an infected horse when nasal discharge or pus from the draining lymph nodes contaminate pastures, feed troughs, brushes, bedding, tack etc.
Equines of any age may contract the disease, although younger and elderly equines are more susceptible. Young equines may lack immunity to the disease because they have not had prior exposure. Geriatric equines may have a weaker immune system.
Viral pneumonia is a pneumonia caused by a virus.
Viruses are one of the two major causes of pneumonia, the other being bacteria; less common causes are fungi and parasites. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children, while in adults bacteria are a more common cause.
"M. pneumoniae" infections can be differentiated from other types of pneumonia by the relatively slow progression of symptoms. A positive blood test for cold-hemagglutinins in 50–70% of patients after 10 days of infection (cold-hemagglutinin-test should be used with caution or not at all, since 50% of the tests are false-positive), lack of bacteria in a Gram-stained sputum sample, and a lack of growth on blood agar.
PCR has also been used.
Usually the atypical causes also involve atypical symptoms:
- No response to common antibiotics such as sulfonamide and beta-lactams like penicillin.
- No signs and symptoms of lobar consolidation, meaning that the infection is restricted to small areas, rather than involving a whole lobe. As the disease progresses, however, the look can tend to lobar pneumonia.
- Absence of leukocytosis.
- Extrapulmonary symptoms, related to the causing organism.
- Moderate amount of sputum, or no sputum at all (i.e. non-productive).
- Lack of alveolar exudate.
- Despite general symptoms and problems with the upper respiratory tract (such as high fever, headache, a dry irritating cough followed later by a productive cough with radiographs showing consolidation), there are in general few physical signs. The patient looks better than the symptoms suggest.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is a type of bacterial pneumonia that is specifically caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. "S. pneumoniae" is also called pneumococcus. It is the most common bacterial pneumonia found in adults. The estimated number of Americans with pneumococcal pneumonia is 900,000 annually, with almost 400,000 cases hospitalized and fatalities accounting for 5-7% of these cases.
The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia can occur suddenly, typically presenting as a severe chill, later including a severe fever, cough, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and chest pains. Other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches could also accompany the original symptoms. Sometimes the coughing can produce rusty or blood-streaked sputum. In 25% of cases, a parapneumonic effusion may occur. Chest X-rays will typically show lobar consolidation or patchy infiltrates.
In most cases, once pneumococcal pneumonia has been identified, doctors will prescribe antibiotics. These antibiotic usually help alleviate and eliminate symptoms between 12 and 36 hours after being taken. Despite most antibiotics' effectiveness in treating the disease, sometimes the bacteria can resist the antibiotics, causing symptoms to worsen. Additionally, age and health of the infected patient can contribute to the effectiveness of the antibiotics. A vaccine has also been developed for the prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia, recommended to children under age five as well as adults over the age of 65.
While it has been commonly known that the influenza virus increases one's chances of contracting pneumonia or meningitis caused by the streptococcus pneumonaie bacteria, new medical research in mice indicates that the flu is actually a necessary component for the transmission of the disease. Researcher Dimitri Diavatopoulo from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in the Netherlands describes his observations in mice, stating that in these animals, the spread of the bacteria only occurs between animals already infected with the influenza virus, not between those without it. He says that these findings have only been inclusive in mice, however, he believes that the same could be true for humans.
New or progressive infiltrate on the chest X-ray with one of the following:
- Fever > 37.8 °C (100 °F)
- Purulent sputum
- Leukocytosis > 10,000 cells/μl
In an elderly person, the first sign of hospital-acquired pneumonia may be mental changes or confusion.
Other symptoms may include:
- A cough with greenish or pus-like phlegm (sputum)
- Fever and chills
- General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise)
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sharp chest pain that gets worse with deep breathing or coughing
- Shortness of breath
- Decreased blood pressure and fast heart rate
"Streptococcus pneumoniae" () is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants. "Streptococcus pneumoniae" is a Gram-positive bacterium that often lives in the throat of people who do not have pneumonia.
Other important Gram-positive causes of pneumonia are "Staphylococcus aureus" () and "Bacillus anthracis".
Pneumonia is an illness which can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Pneumonia can occur in any animal with lungs, including mammals, birds, and reptiles.
Symptoms associated with pneumonia include fever, fast or difficult breathing, nasal discharge, and decreased activity.
Different animal species have distinct lung anatomy and physiology and are thus
affected by pneumonia differently. Differences in anatomy, immune systems, diet, and behavior also affects the particular microorganisms commonly causing
pneumonia. Diagnostic tools include physical examination, testing of the
sputum, and x-ray investigation. Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia;
bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics.
"See also:" Pneumonia, Pneumonic.
Chest radiographs (X-ray photographs) often show a pulmonary infection before physical signs of atypical pneumonia are observable at all.
This is occult pneumonia. In general, occult pneumonia is rather often present in patients with pneumonia and can also be caused by "Streptococcus pneumoniae", as the decrease of occult pneumonia after vaccination of children with a pneumococcal vaccine suggests.
Infiltration commonly begins in the perihilar region (where the bronchus begins) and spreads in a wedge- or fan-shaped fashion toward the periphery of the lung field. The process most often involves the lower lobe, but may affect any lobe or combination of lobes.
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection.
Approximately 33% of people with influenza are asymptomatic.
Symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. Usually the first symptoms are chills or a chilly sensation, but fever is also common early in the infection, with body temperatures ranging from 38 to 39 °C (approximately 100 to 103 °F). Many people are so ill that they are confined to bed for several days, with aches and pains throughout their bodies, which are worse in their backs and legs. Symptoms of influenza may include:
- Fever and extreme coldness (chills shivering, shaking (rigor))
- Nasal congestion
- Runny nose
- Body aches, especially joints and throat
- Irritated, watering eyes
- Reddened eyes, skin (especially face), mouth, throat and nose
- Petechial rash
- In children, gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain, (may be severe in children with influenza B)
It can be difficult to distinguish between the common cold and influenza in the early stages of these infections. Influenza is a mixture of symptoms of common cold and pneumonia, body ache, headache, and fatigue. Diarrhea is not normally a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. The symptoms most reliably seen in influenza are shown in the adjacent table.
Since antiviral drugs are effective in treating influenza if given early (see treatment section, below), it can be important to identify cases early. Of the symptoms listed above, the combinations of fever with cough, sore throat and/or nasal congestion can improve diagnostic accuracy. Two decision analysis studies suggest that "during local outbreaks" of influenza, the prevalence will be over 70%, and thus patients with any of these combinations of symptoms may be treated with neuraminidase inhibitors without testing. Even in the absence of a local outbreak, treatment may be justified in the elderly during the influenza season as long as the prevalence is over 15%.
The available laboratory tests for influenza continue to improve. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) maintains an up-to-date summary of available laboratory tests. According to the CDC, rapid diagnostic tests have a sensitivity of 50–75% and specificity of 90–95% when compared with viral culture. These tests may be especially useful during the influenza season (prevalence=25%) but in the absence of a local outbreak, or peri-influenza season (prevalence=10%).
Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. The obvious symptom is trouble breathing. In addition, if a child (or presumably an adult) seems to be getting better and then relapses with a high fever, that is a danger sign since this relapse can be bacterial pneumonia.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus.
HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection (after urinary tract infections) and accounts for 15–20% of the total. It is the most common cause of death among nosocomial infections and is the primary cause of death in intensive care units.
HAP typically lengthens a hospital stay by 1–2 weeks.
Over 100 microorganisms can cause CAP, with most cases caused by "Streptococcus pneumoniae". Certain groups of people are more susceptible to CAP-causing pathogens; for example, infants, adults with chronic conditions (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), senior citizens, alcoholics and others with compromised immune systems are more likely to develop CAP from "Haemophilus influenzae" or "Pneumocystis carinii". A definitive cause is identified in only half the cases.
Direct transmission of a swine flu virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible (zoonotic swine flu). In all, 50 cases are known to have occurred since the first report in medical literature in 1958, which have resulted in a total of six deaths. Of these six people, one was pregnant, one had leukemia, one had Hodgkin's lymphoma and two were known to be previously healthy. Despite these apparently low numbers of infections, the true rate of infection may be higher, since most cases only cause a very mild disease, and will probably never be reported or diagnosed.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in humans the symptoms of the 2009 "swine flu" H1N1 virus are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general. Symptoms include fever; cough, sore throat, watery eyes, body aches, shortness of breath, headache, weight loss, chills, sneezing, runny nose, coughing, dizziness, abdominal pain, lack of appetite and fatigue. The 2009 outbreak has shown an increased percentage of patients reporting diarrhea and vomiting as well. The 2009 H1N1 virus is not zoonotic swine flu, as it is not transmitted from pigs to humans, but from person to person through airborne droplets.
Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of "probable" swine flu requires not only symptoms, but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the person's recent and past medical history. For example, during the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States, the CDC advised physicians to "consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one of the five U.S. states that have reported swine flu cases or in Mexico during the seven days preceding their illness onset." A diagnosis of "confirmed" swine flu requires laboratory testing of a respiratory sample (a simple nose and throat swab).
The most common cause of death is respiratory failure. Other causes of death are pneumonia (leading to sepsis), high fever (leading to neurological problems), dehydration (from excessive vomiting and diarrhea), electrolyte imbalance and kidney failure. Fatalities are more likely in young children and the elderly.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system. The chief difference between hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and CAP is that patients with HAP live in long-term care facilities or have recently visited a hospital. CAP is common, affecting people of all ages, and its symptoms occur as a result of oxygen-absorbing areas of the lung (alveoli) filling with fluid. This inhibits lung function, causing dyspnea, fever, chest pains and cough.
CAP, the most common type of pneumonia, is a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Its causes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. CAP is diagnosed by assessing symptoms, making a physical examination and on x-ray. Other tests, such as sputum examination, supplement chest x-rays. Patients with CAP sometimes require hospitalization, and it is treated primarily with antibiotics, antipyretics and cough medicine. Some forms of CAP can be prevented by vaccination and by abstaining from tobacco products.
In swine, an influenza infection produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite. In some cases the infection can cause abortion. Although mortality is usually low (around 1–4%), the virus can produce weight loss and poor growth, causing economic loss to farmers. Infected pigs can lose up to 12 pounds of body weight over a three- to four-week period. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses are able to bind to, which leads to the virus being able to evolve and mutate into different forms. Influenza A is responsible for infecting swine, and was first identified in the summer of 1918. Pigs have often been seen as "mixing vessels", which help to change and evolve strains of disease that are then passed on to other mammals, such as humans.
Individuals with "Klebsiella" pneumonia tend to cough up a characteristic sputum, as well as having fever, nausea, tachycardia and vomiting. "Klebsiella" pneumonia tends to affect people with underlying conditions, such as alcoholism.
People with infectious pneumonia often have a productive cough, fever accompanied by shaking chills, shortness of breath, sharp or stabbing chest pain during deep breaths, and an increased rate of breathing. In the elderly, confusion may be the most prominent sign.
The typical signs and symptoms in children under five are fever, cough, and fast or difficult breathing. Fever is not very specific, as it occurs in many other common illnesses, may be absent in those with severe disease, malnutrition or in the elderly. In addition, a cough is frequently absent in children less than 2 months old. More severe signs and symptoms in children may include blue-tinged skin, unwillingness to drink, convulsions, ongoing vomiting, extremes of temperature, or a decreased level of consciousness.
Bacterial and viral cases of pneumonia usually present with similar symptoms. Some causes are associated with classic, but non-specific, clinical characteristics. Pneumonia caused by "Legionella" may occur with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or confusion, while pneumonia caused by "Streptococcus pneumoniae" is associated with rusty colored sputum, and pneumonia caused by "Klebsiella" may have bloody sputum often described as "currant jelly". Bloody sputum (known as hemoptysis) may also occur with tuberculosis, Gram-negative pneumonia, and lung abscesses as well as more commonly with acute bronchitis. "Mycoplasma" pneumonia may occur in association with swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, joint pain, or a middle ear infection. Viral pneumonia presents more commonly with wheezing than does bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia was historically divided into "typical" and "atypical" based on the belief that the presentation predicted the underlying cause. However, evidence has not supported this distinction, thus it is no longer emphasized.