Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
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Although infection of avian reovirus is spread worldwide, it is rarely the sole cause of a disease. For chickens, the most common manifestation of the disease is joint/limb lameness. Confirming infection of avian reovirus can be detected through an ELISA test by using and observing the expression of σC and σB proteins. However, isolating and identifying reoviruses from tissue samples is very time consuming. Isolation is most successfully attained through inoculation of material into chick embryo cultures or fertile chicken eggs. Inoculation of embryonic eggs through the yolk sac has shown that the virus usually kills the embryos within 5 or 6 days post inoculation. Analyzing the samples, the embryos appeared hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions on the liver were present. (Jones, Onunkwo, 1978). There have also been approaches to identify avian reoviruses molecularly by observing infected tissues with dot-blot hybridization, PCR, and a combination of PCR and RFLP. This combination allows for the reovirus strain to be typed.
Vaccines are available (ATCvet codes: for the inactivated vaccine, for the live vaccine, plus various combinations).
Given that avian reovirus infections are widespread, the viruses are relatively resistant outside the host, and that vertical and horizontal transmission occurs, eradicating avian reovirus infection in commercial chicken flocks is very unlikely. In addition, absence of detectable seroconversion and failure to detect virus in cloacal swabs are unreliable indicators of resisting infection, or transmission via the egg. Thus, the most proactive and successful approach to controlling this disease is through vaccination. Since chicks are more prone to being detrimentally affected by the disease right after hatching, vaccine protocols that use live and killed vaccines are designed to provide protection during the very early stages of life. This approach has been accomplished through active immunity after early vaccination and a live vaccine or passive immunity from maternal antibodies followed with vaccination of the breeder hens. Currently, efforts toward administering inactivated or live vaccines to breeding stock to allow passive immunity to the offspring via the yolk are being taken.
Diagnosis is achieved most commonly by serologic testing of the blood for the presence of antibodies against the ehrlichia organism. Many veterinarians routinely test for the disease, especially in enzootic areas. During the acute phase of infection, the test can be falsely negative because the body will not have had time to make antibodies to the infection. As such, the test should be repeated. A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) test can be performed during this stage to detect genetic material of the bacteria. The PCR test is more likely to yield a negative result during the subclinical and chronic disease phases. In addition, blood tests may show abnormalities in the numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and most commonly platelets, if the disease is present. Uncommonly, a diagnosis can be made by looking under a microscope at a blood smear for the presence of the "ehrlichia" morulae, which sometimes can be seen as intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within a white blood cell.
There is currently no specific treatment for the virus. A vaccine is available, but only experimentally. It has not been released to the public due to the risk it poses to already exposed birds.
Therapeutic intervention is limited to treating secondary infections. The individual bird can sometimes recover, but this is rare. If only the feathers are affected and the bird suffers no other symptoms, it can usually experience an acceptable quality of life. But if the bird's beak or nails are affected, veterinarians will recommend euthanasia.
The management of the disease lies thus mostly in prevention. Every new bird that enters a pen with other birds should be quarantined first and be tested for BFDV. Birds which are known carriers should not be introduced into new pens, especially not if those contain young birds.
The prognosis is good for dogs with acute ehrlichiosis. For dogs that have reached the chronic stage of the disease, the prognosis is guarded. When bone marrow suppression occurs and there are low levels of blood cells, the animal may not respond to treatment.
Diagnosis during the acute phase can be made by obtaining a peripheral blood smear with Giemsa stain, Columbia blood agar cultures, immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence, and PCR. Diagnosis during the chronic phase can be made using a Warthin-Starry stain of wart biopsy, PCR, and immunoblot.
PBFD is usually acquired by nestlings from their parents (vertical transmission) or from other members of the flock (horizontal transmission). The immature immune system of young birds makes them susceptible to the PBFDV. The virus may be transferred in crop secretions, in fresh or dried feces, and in feather and skin particles.
Adult birds coming into contact with the virus usually (but not always) develop resistance to it, but the virus is retained in their body and, in most cases, is excreted in feces and feather debris for the rest of their lives.
Carrion's disease is caused by "Bartonella bacilliformis".
Recent investigations show that "Candidatus Bartonella ancashi" may cause verruga peruana, although it may not meet all of Koch's postulates. There has been no experimental reproduction of the Peruvian wart in animals and there is little research on the disease's natural spread or impact in native animals.
Available treatment falls into two modalities: treating infections and boosting the immune system.
Prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia using trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is useful in those who are immunocompromised. In the early 1950s Immunoglobulin(Ig) was used by doctors to treat patients with primary immunodeficiency through intramuscular injection. Ig replacement therapy are infusions that can be either subcutaneous or intravenously administrated, resulting in higher Ig levels for about three to four weeks, although this varies with each patient.
Pythiosis is suspected to be heavily underdiagnosed due to unfamiliarity with the disease, the rapid progression and morbidity, and the difficulty in making a diagnosis. Symptoms often appear once the disease has progressed to the point where treatment are less effective.
As the organism is neither a bacterium, virus, nor fungus, routine tests often fail to diagnose it. In cytology and histology, the organism does not stain using Geisma, H&E, or Diff-Quick. GMS staining is required to identify the hyphae in slides. Additionally, the symptoms are usually nonspecific and the disease is not normally included in a differential diagnosis.
Biopsies of infected tissues are known to be difficult to culture, but can help narrow the diagnosis to several different organisms. A definite diagnosis is confirmed using ELISA testing of serum for pythiosis antibodies, or by PCR testing of infected tissues or cultures.
Due to the poor efficacy of single treatments, pythiosis infections are often treated using a variety of different treatments, all with varying success. Most successful treatments include surgery, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy.
Aggressive surgical resection is the treatment of choice for pythiosis. Because it provides the best opportunity for cure, complete excision of infected tissue should be pursued whenever possible. When cutaneous lesions are limited to a single distal extremity, amputation is often recommended. In animals with gastrointestinal pythiosis, segmental lesions should be resected with 5-cm margins whenever possible. Unfortunately, surgical excision of tissue and amputation do not guarantee complete success and lesions can reappear. So, surgery is often followed by other treatments.
An immunotherapy product derived from antigens of "P. insidiosum" has been used successfully to treat pythiosis.
Case reports indicate the use of the following chemotherapy treatments with varying success: potassium iodide, amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, natamycin, posaconazole, voriconazole, prednisone, flucytosine, and liposomal nystatin.
Prognosis depends greatly on the nature and severity of the condition. Some deficiencies cause early mortality (before age one), others with or even without treatment are lifelong conditions that cause little mortality or morbidity. Newer stem cell transplant technologies may lead to gene based treatments of
debilitating and fatal genetic immune deficiencies. Prognosis of acquired immune deficiencies depends on avoiding or treating the causative agent or
condition (like AIDS).
In cats, pythioisis is almost always confined to the skin as hairless and edematous lesions. It is usually found on the limbs, perineum, and at the base of the tail. Lesions may also develop in the nasopharynx.
The only animals that have been successfully infected with the disease are rabbits which are used for "in vivo" studies of the disease.
Other animals reported to have contracted pythiosis are bears, jaguars, camels, and birds, although these have only been singular events.
Urbach–Wiethe disease is typically diagnosed by its clinical dermatological manifestations, particularly the beaded papules on the eyelids. Doctors can also test the hyaline material with a periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, as the material colors strongly for this stain.
Immunohistochemical skin labeling for antibodies for the ECM1 protein as labeling has been shown to be reduced in the skin of those affected by Urbach–Wiethe disease. Staining with anti-type IV collagen antibodies or anti-type VII collagen antibodies reveals bright, thick bands at the dermoepidermal junction.
Non-contrast CT scans can image calcifications, but this is not typically used as a means of diagnosing the disease. This is partly due to the fact that not all Urbach-Wiethe patients exhibit calcifications, but also because similar lesions can be formed from other diseases such as herpes simplex and encephalitis. The discovery of mutations within the ECM1 gene has allowed the use of genetic testing to confirm initial clinical diagnoses of Urbach–Wiethe disease. It also allows doctors to better distinguish between Urbach–Wiethe disease and other similar diseases not caused by mutations in ECM1.
Diagnosis may be simple in cases where the patient's signs and symptoms are idiopathic to a specific cause. However this is generally not the case, considering that many pathogens which cause enteritis may exhibit the similar symptoms, especially early in the disease. In particular, "campylobacter, shigella, salmonella" and many other bacteria induce acute self-limited colitis, an inflammation of the lining of the colon which appears similar under the microscope.
A medical history, physical examination and tests such as blood counts, stool cultures, CT scans, MRIs, PCRs, colonoscopies and upper endoscopies may be used in order to perform a differential diagnosis. A biopsy may be required to obtain a sample for histopathology.
Other than identifying and treating any underlying conditions in secondary livedo, idiopathic livedo reticularis may improve with warming the area.
There is no cure or treatment for GSS. It can, however, be identified through genetic testing. GSS is the slowest to progress among human prion diseases. Duration of illness can range from 3 months to 13 years, with an average duration of 5 or 6 years.
Castleman disease is diagnosed when a lymph node biopsy reveals regression of germinal centers, abnormal vascularity, and a range of hyaline vascular changes and/or polytypic plasma cell proliferation. These features can also be seen in other disorders involving excessive cytokine release, so they must be excluded before a Castleman disease diagnosis should be made.
It is essential for the biopsy sample to be tested for HHV-8 with latent associated nuclear antigen (LANA) by immunohistochemistry or PCR for HHV-8 in the blood.
In the unicentric form of the disease, surgical resection is often curative, and the prognosis is excellent.
Mutation analysis of the "ATP7B" gene, as well as other genes linked to copper accumulation in the liver, may be performed. Once a mutation is confirmed, it is possible to screen family members for the disease as part of clinical genetics family counseling. Regional distributions of genes associated with Wilson's disease are important to follow, as this can help clinicians design appropriate screening strategies. Since mutations of the WD gene vary between populations, research and genetic testing done in countries like the USA or United Kingdom can pose problems as they tend to have more mixed populations.
Clinical evaluation and identification of characteristics papules may allow a dermatologist to diagnose Degos disease. The papules have a white center and are bordered with a red ring. After lesions begin to appear, the diagnosis for Degos disease can be supported by histological findings. Most cases will show a wedge-shaped connective tissue necoris in the deep corium. This shape is due to the blockage/occlusion of small arteries.
Individuals may be diagnosed with the benign form if only the papules are present. However, an individual may be diagnosed with the malignant form if involvement of other organs like the lungs, intestine and/or central nervous system occurs. The malignant, or systematic form of this condition may suddenly develop even after having papules present for several years. In order to quickly diagnose this shift to the malignant variant of the disease, it is important for individuals to have consistent follow-up evaluations.In these evaluations, depending on which organs are suspected to be involved, the following procedures and tests may be conducted: skin inspection, brain magnetic resonance tomography, colonoscopy, chest X-ray, and/or abdominal ultrasound.
There is no cure for GSS, nor is there any known treatment to slow the progression of the disease. However, therapies and medication are aimed at treating or slowing down the effects of the symptoms. Their goal is to try to improve the patient's quality of life as much as possible. Despite there being no cure for GSS, it is possible to undergo testing for the presence of the underlying genetic mutation. Testing for GSS involves a blood and DNA examination in order to attempt to detect the mutated gene at certain codons. If the genetic mutation is present, the patient will eventually be afflicted by GSS, and, due to the genetic nature of the disease, the offspring of the patient are predisposed to a higher risk of inheriting the mutation.
Urbach–Wiethe disease is typically not a life-threatening condition. The life expectancy of these patients is normal as long as the potential side effects of thickening mucosa, such as respiratory obstruction, are properly addressed. Although this may require a tracheostomy or carbon dioxide laser surgery, such steps can help ensure that individuals with Urbach–Wiethe disease are able to live a full life. Oral dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been shown to reduce skin lesions, helping to minimize discomfort for these individuals.
A number of liver function tests (LFTs) are available to test the proper function of the liver. These test for the presence of enzymes in blood that are normally most abundant in liver tissue, metabolites or products. serum proteins, serum albumin, serum globulin,
alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time.
Imaging tests such as transient elastography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to examine the liver tissue and the bile ducts. Liver biopsy can be performed to examine liver tissue to distinguish between various conditions; tests such as elastography may reduce the need for biopsy in some situations.
Gaucher disease is suggested based on the overall clinical picture. Initial laboratory testing may include enzyme testing. As a result, lower than 15% of mean normal activity is considered to be diagnostic. Decreased enzyme levels will often be confirmed by genetic testing. Numerous different mutations occur; sequencing of the beta-glucosidase gene is sometimes necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis is available and is useful when a known genetic risk factor is present.
A diagnosis can also be implied by biochemical abnormalities such as high alkaline phosphatase, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and immunoglobulin levels, or by cell analysis showing "crinkled paper" cytoplasm and glycolipid-laden macrophages.
Some lysosomal enzymes are elevated, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, hexosaminidase, and a human chitinase, chitotriosidase. This latter enzyme has proved to be very useful for monitoring Gaucher's disease activity in response to treatment, and may reflect the severity of the disease
Mild cases usually do not require treatment and will go away after a few days in healthy people. In cases where symptoms persist or when it is more severe, specific treatments based on the initial cause may be required.
In cases where diarrhoea is present, replenishing fluids lost is recommended, and in cases with prolonged or severe diarrhoea which persists, intravenous rehydration therapy or antibiotics may be required. A simple oral rehydration therapy (ORS) can be made by dissolving one teaspoon of salt, eight teaspoons of sugar and the juice of an orange into one litre of clean water. Studies have shown the efficacy of antibiotics in reducing the duration of the symptoms of infectious enteritis of bacterial origin, however antibiotic treatments are usually not required due to the self-limiting duration of infectious enteritis.