Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
Funded by The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy; Grant: 01MD19013D, Smart-MD Project, Digital Technologies
The primary risk factor for COPD globally is tobacco smoking. Of those who smoke, about 20% will get COPD, and of those who are lifelong smokers, about half will get COPD. In the United States and United Kingdom, of those with COPD, 80–95% are either current smokers or previously smoked. The likelihood of developing COPD increases with the total smoke exposure. Additionally, women are more susceptible to the harmful effects of smoke than men. In nonsmokers, secondhand smoke is the cause of about 20% of cases. Other types of smoke, such as, marijuana, cigar, and water-pipe smoke, also confer a risk. Water-pipe smoke appears to be as harmful as smoking cigarettes. Problems from marijuana smoke may only be with heavy use. Women who smoke during pregnancy may increase the risk of COPD in their child. For the same amount of cigarette smoking, women have a higher risk of COPD than men.
Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. About 5% of adults are affected and about 6% of children have at least one episode a year. It occurs more often in the winter. More than 10 million people in the United States visit a doctor each year for this condition with about 70% receiving antibiotics which are mostly not needed. There are efforts to decrease the use of antibiotics in acute bronchitis.
Intense and prolonged exposure to workplace dusts, chemicals, and fumes increases the risk of COPD in both smokers and nonsmokers. Workplace exposures are believed to be the cause in 10–20% of cases. In the United States, they are believed to be related to more than 30% of cases among those who have never smoked and probably represent a greater risk in countries without sufficient regulations.
A number of industries and sources have been implicated, including high levels of dust in coal mining, gold mining, and the cotton textile industry, occupations involving cadmium and isocyanates, and fumes from welding. Working in agriculture is also a risk. In some professions, the risks have been estimated as equivalent to that of one-half to two packs of cigarettes a day. Silica dust and fiberglass dust exposure can also lead to COPD, with the risk unrelated to that for silicosis. The negative effects of dust exposure and cigarette smoke exposure appear to be additive or possibly more than additive.
Most cases of chronic bronchitis are caused by smoking cigarettes or other forms of tobacco. Additionally, chronic inhalation of air pollution or irritating fumes or dust from hazardous exposures in occupations such as coal mining, grain handling, textile manufacturing, livestock farming, and metal moulding may also be a risk factor for the development of chronic bronchitis. Protracted bacterial bronchitis is usually caused by "Streptococcus pneumoniae", "Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae", or "Moraxella catarrhalis".
Pneumonia occurs in a variety of situations and treatment must vary according to the situation. It is classified as either community or hospital acquired depending on where the patient contracted the infection. It is life-threatening in the elderly or those who are immunocompromised. The most common treatment is antibiotics and these vary in their adverse effects and their effectiveness. Pneumonia is also the leading cause of death in children less than five years of age in low income countries. The most common cause of pneumonia is pneumococcal bacteria, "Streptococcus pneumoniae" accounts for 2/3 of bacteremic pneumonias. This is a dangerous type of lung infection with a mortality rate of around 25%.
For optimal management of a pneumonia patient, the following must be assessed: pneumonia severity (including treatment location, e.g., home, hospital or intensive care), identification of causative organism, analgesia of chest pain, the need for supplemental oxygen, physiotherapy, hydration, bronchodilators and possible complications of emphysema or lung abscess.
The rate of BPD varies among institutions, which may reflect neonatal risk factors, care practices (e.g., target levels for acceptable oxygen saturation), and differences in the clinical definitions of BPD.
Respiratory disease is a common and significant cause of illness and death around the world. In the US, approximately 1 billion "common colds" occur each year. A study found that in 2010, there were approximately 6.8 million emergency department visits for respiratory disorders in the U.S. for patients under the age of 18. In 2012, respiratory conditions were the most frequent reasons for hospital stays among children.
In the UK, approximately 1 in 7 individuals are affected by some form of chronic lung disease, most commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Respiratory diseases (including lung cancer) are responsible for over 10% of hospitalizations and over 16% of deaths in Canada.
In 2011, respiratory disease with ventilator support accounted for 93.3% of ICU utilization in the United States.
Pulmonary diseases may also impact newborns, such as pulmonary hyperplasia, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (usually preterm births), and infant respiratory distress syndrome,
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. An infection of this type is normally further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, tend to be far more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold.
Asthma is a respiratory disease that can begin or worsen due to exposure at work and is characterized by episodic narrowing of the respiratory tract. Occupational asthma has a variety of causes, including sensitization to a specific substance, causing an allergic response; or a reaction to an irritant that is inhaled in the workplace. Exposure to various substances can also worsen pre-existing asthma. People who work in isocyanate manufacturing, who use latex gloves, or who work in an indoor office environment are at higher risk for occupational asthma than the average US worker. Approximately 2 million people in the US have occupational asthma.
Normal surgical masks and N95 masks appear equivalent with respect to preventing respiratory infections.
Lower respiratory infectious disease is the fifth-leading cause of death and the combined leading infectious cause of death, being responsible for 2·74 million deaths worldwide. This is generally similar to estimates in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study.
This total only accounts for "Streptococcus pneumoniae" and "Haemophilus Influenzae" infections and does not account for atypical or nosocomial causes of lower respiratory disease, therefore underestimating total disease burden.
Tobacco smoke is a known carcinogen. Workers in the hospitality industry may be exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace, especially in environments like casinos and bars/restaurants.
The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable. IPF progression is associated with an estimated median survival time of 2 to 5 years following diagnosis.
The 5-year survival for IPF ranges between 20–40%, a mortality rate higher than that of a number of malignancies, including colon cancer, multiple myeloma and bladder cancer.
Recently a multidimensional index and staging system has been proposed to predict mortality in IPF. The name of the index is GAP and is based on gender [G], age [A], and two lung physiology variables [P] (FVC and DL that are commonly measured in clinical practice to predict mortality in IPF. The highest stage of GAP (stage III) has been found to be associated with a 39% risk of mortality at 1 year. This model has also been evaluated in IPF and other ILDs and shown good performance in predicting mortality in all main ILD subtypes. A modified ILD-GAP Index has been developed for application across ILD subtypes to provide disease-specific survival estimates. In IPF patients, the overall mortality at 5 years rate is high but the annual rate of all-cause mortality in patients with mild to moderate lung impairment is relatively low. This is the reason why change in lung function (FVC) is usually measured in 1-year clinical trials of IPF treatments rather than survival.
In addition to clinical and physiological parameters to predict how rapidly patients with IPF might progress, genetic and molecular features are also associated with IPF mortality. For example, it has been shown that IPF patients who have a specific genotype in the mucin MUC5B gene polymorphism (see above) experience slower decline in FVC and significantly improved survival. Even if such data are interesting from a scientific point of view, the application in the clinical routine of a prognostic model based on specific genotypes is still not possible.
Diagnosis of obstructive disease requires several factors depending on the exact disease being diagnosed. However one commonalty between them is an FEV1/FVC ratio less than 0.7, i.e. the inability to exhale 70% of their breath within one second.
Following is an overview of the main obstructive lung diseases. "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" is mainly a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, but may be more or less overlapping with all conditions.
Although rare, IPF is the most common form of IIP. The prevalence of IPF has been estimated between 14.0 and 42.7 per 100,000 persons based on a USA analysis of healthcare claims data, with variation depending on the case definitions used in this analyses. IPF is more common in men than in women and is usually diagnosed in people over 50 years of age.
The incidence of IPF is difficult to determine as uniform diagnostic criteria have not been applied consistently. A recent study from the USA estimated the incidence of IPF to be between 6.8 and 16.3 per 100,000 persons. In the 27 European Union countries, a range of sources estimate an incidence of 4.6–7.4 people per 100,000 of the population, suggesting that approximately 30,000–35,000 new patients will be diagnosed with IPF each year.
A recent single-centre, retrospective, observational cohort study including incident patients diagnosed with ILD at Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark) between 2003 and 2009 revealed an incidence of 4.1 per 100,000 inhabitants/year for ILD. IPF was the most common diagnosis (28%) followed by connective tissue disease-related ILD (14%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (7%) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) (7%). IPF incidence was 1.3 per 100,000 inhabitants/year.
Due to a heterogeneous distribution of the disease across European countries, epidemiological data needs to be updated through a Europe-wide registry for ILD and IPF.
Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction. Many obstructive diseases of the lung result from narrowing (obstruction) of the smaller bronchi and larger bronchioles, often because of excessive contraction of the smooth muscle itself. It is generally characterized by inflamed and easily collapsible airways, obstruction to airflow, problems exhaling and frequent medical clinic visits and hospitalizations. Types of obstructive lung disease include; asthma, bronchiectasis, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although COPD shares similar characteristics with all other obstructive lung diseases, such as the signs of coughing and wheezing, they are distinct conditions in terms of disease onset, frequency of symptoms and reversibility of airway obstruction. Cystic fibrosis is also sometimes included in obstructive pulmonary disease.
ILD may be classified according to the cause. One method of classification is as follows:
1. Inhaled substances
- printing workers (eg. carbon bblack, ink mist)
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
- Chemotherapeutic drugs
- Antiarrhythmic agents
3. Connective tissue and Autoimmune diseases
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Systemic sclerosis
- Atypical pneumonia
- Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
- "Chlamydia" trachomatis
- Respiratory Syncytial Virus
- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Hamman-Rich syndrome
- Antisynthetase syndrome
- Lymphangitic carcinomatosis
7. Predominantly in children
- Diffuse developmental disorders
- Growth abnormalities deficient alveolarisation
- Infant conditions of undefined cause
- ILD related to alveolar surfactant region
Clinically, the most serious and immediate complication is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which usually occurs within 24 h. Those with significant lower airway involvement may develop bacterial infection. Importantly, victims suffering body surface burn and smoke inhalation are the most susceptible. Thermal injury combined with inhalation injury compromises pulmonary function, producing microvascular hyperpermeability that leads to a significant increase in lung lymph flow and pulmonary edema. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 left many people with impaired lung function. A study of firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in the FDNY WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program, whose lung function was tested prior to 9/11, documented a steep decline in lung function in the first year after 9/11. A new study that includes a thousand additional workers shows that the declines have persisted over time. Prior to 9/11, 3% of firefighters had below-normal lung function, one year after 9/11 nearly 19% did, and six years later it stabilized at 13%. Ten to 14 days after acute exposure to some agents (e.g. ammonia, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury), some patients develop bronchiolitis obliterans progressing to ARDS. Bronchiolitis obliterans with organized pneumonia can ensue when granulation tissue accumulates in the terminal airways and alveolar ducts during the body's reparative process. A minority of these patients develop late pulmonary fibrosis. Also at enhanced risk are persons with co-morbidities. Several studies report that both aged persons and smokers are especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of inhalation injury.
Regardless of cause, UIP is relentlessly progressive, usually leading to respiratory failure and death without a lung transplant. Some patients do well for a prolonged period of time, but then deteriorate rapidly because of a superimposed acute illness (so-called "accelerated UIP"). The outlook for long-term survival is poor. In most studies, the median survival is 3 to 4 years. Patients with UIP in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis have a slightly better prognosis than UIP without a known cause (IPF).
Risk factors for pulmonary aspiration include conditions which depress the level of consciousness (such as traumatic brain injury, alcohol intoxication, drug overdose, and general anesthesia). A decreased gag reflex, upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter tone, gastroesophageal reflux, full stomach, as well as obesity, stroke, and pregnancy can all increase the risk of aspiration in the semiconscious. Tracheal intubation or presence of a gastric tube (for example, a feeding tube) may also increase the risk.
Pulmonary aspiration of acidic material (such as stomach acid) may produce an immediate primary injury caused by the chemical reaction of acid with lung parenchyma, and a later secondary injury as a result of the subsequent inflammatory response.
Giving the mother glucocorticoids speeds the production of surfactant. For very premature deliveries, a glucocorticoid is given without testing the fetal lung maturity. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Royal College of Medicine, and other major organizations have recommended antenatal glucocorticoid treatment for women at risk for preterm delivery prior to 34 weeks of gestation. Multiple courses of glucocorticoid administration, compared with a single course, does not seem to increase or decrease the risk of death or neurodevelopmental disorders of the child.
In pregnancies of greater than 30 weeks, the fetal lung maturity may be tested by sampling the amount of surfactant in the amniotic fluid by amniocentesis, wherein a needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen and uterus. Several tests are available that correlate with the production of surfactant. These include the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio ("L/S ratio"), the presence of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and more recently, the surfactant/albumin (S/A) ratio. For the L/S ratio, if the result is less than 2:1, the fetal lungs may be surfactant deficient. The presence of PG usually indicates fetal lung maturity. For the S/A ratio, the result is given as mg of surfactant per gm of protein. An S/A ratio 55 indicates mature surfactant production(correlates with an L/S ratio of 2.2 or greater).
Pulmonary fibrosis may be a secondary effect of other diseases. Most of these are classified as interstitial lung diseases. Examples include autoimmune disorders, viral infections and bacterial infection like tuberculosis which may cause fibrotic changes in both lungs upper or lower lobes and other microscopic injuries to the lung. However, pulmonary fibrosis can also appear without any known cause. In this case, it is termed "idiopathic". Most idiopathic cases are diagnosed as "idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis". This is a diagnosis of exclusion of a characteristic set of histologic/pathologic features known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). In either case, there is a growing body of evidence which points to a genetic predisposition in a subset of patients. For example, a mutation in surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been found to exist in some families with a history of pulmonary fibrosis.
Diseases and conditions that may cause pulmonary fibrosis as a secondary effect include:
- Inhalation of environmental and occupational pollutants, such as metals in asbestosis, silicosis and exposure to certain gases. Coal miners, ship workers and sand blasters among others are at higher risk.
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, most often resulting from inhaling dust contaminated with bacterial, fungal, or animal products.
- Cigarette smoking can increase the risk or make the illness worse.
- Some typical connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, SLE and scleroderma
- Other diseases that involve connective tissue, such as sarcoidosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
- Certain medications, e.g. amiodarone, bleomycin (pingyangmycin), busulfan, methotrexate, apomorphine, and nitrofurantoin
- Radiation therapy to the chest
Asbestos can cause lung cancer that is identical to lung cancer from other causes. Exposure to asbestos is associated with all major histological types of lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large-cell carcinoma and small-cell carcinoma). The latency period between exposure and development of lung cancer is 20 to 30 years. It is estimated that 3%-8% of all lung cancers are related to asbestos. The risk of developing lung cancer depends on the level, duration, and frequency of asbestos exposure (cumulative exposure). Smoking and individual susceptibility are other contributing factors towards lung cancer. Smokers who have been exposed to asbestos are at far greater risk of lung cancer. Smoking and asbestos exposure have a multiplicative (synergistic) effect on the risk of lung cancer. Symptoms include chronic cough, chest pain, breathlessness, haemoptysis (coughing up blood), wheezing or hoarseness of the voice, weight loss and fatigue. Treatment involves surgical removal of the cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of these (multimodality treatment). Prognosis is generally poor unless the cancer is detected in its early stages. Out of all patients diagnosed with lung cancer, only 15% survive for five years after diagnosis.