Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
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The symptoms of an infection depend on the type of disease. Some signs of infection affect the whole body generally, such as fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, fevers, night sweats, chills, aches and pains. Others are specific to individual body parts, such as skin rashes, coughing, or a runny nose.
In certain cases, infectious diseases may be asymptomatic for much or even all of their course in a given host. In the latter case, the disease may only be defined as a "disease" (which by definition means an illness) in hosts who secondarily become ill after contact with an asymptomatic carrier. An infection is not synonymous with an infectious disease, as some infections do not cause illness in a host.
An emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the past 20 years and could increase in the near future. Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. EIDs are caused by newly identified species or strains (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, HIV/AIDS) that may have evolved from a known infection (e.g. influenza) or spread to a new population (e.g. West Nile fever) or to an area undergoing ecologic transformation (e.g. Lyme disease), or be "reemerging" infections, like drug resistant tuberculosis. Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are emerging in hospitals, and extremely problematic in that they are resistant to many antibiotics. Of growing concern are adverse synergistic interactions between emerging diseases and other infectious and non-infectious conditions leading to the development of novel syndemics. Many emerging diseases are zoonotic - an animal reservoir incubates the organism, with only occasional transmission into human populations.
Porcine circoviral disease (PCVD) and Porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), is a disease seen in domestic pigs. This disease causes illness in piglets, with clinical signs including progressive loss of body condition, visibly enlarged lymph nodes, difficulty in breathing, and sometimes diarrhea, pale skin, and jaundice. PCVD is very damaging to the pig-producing industry and has been reported worldwide. PCVD is caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2).
The North American industry endorses "PCVAD" and European use "PCVD" to describe this disease.
Infections associated with diseases are those that are associated with possible infectious etiologies, that meet the requirements of Koch's postulates. Other methods of causation are described by the Bradford Hill criteria and Evidence-based medicine. Koch's postulates have been altered by some epidemiologists based upon sequence-based detection of distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences in tissue samples. Using this method, absolute statements are not always possible regarding causation. Since this is true, higher amounts of distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences would be in those exhibiting disease compared to controls since inoculating those without the pathogen is unethical. In addition, the DNA load should drop or become lower with the resolution of the disease. The distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences load should also increase upon recurrence.
Other conditions are met to establish cause or association including studies in disease transmission. This means that there should be a high disease occurrence in those carrying an pathogen, evidence of a serologicalresponse to the pathogen, and the success of vaccination prevention. Direct visualization of the pathogen, the identification of different strains, immunological responses in the host, how the infection is spread and, the combination of these should all be taken into account to determine the probability that an infectious agent is the cause of the disease. A conclusive determination of a causal role of an infectious agent for in a particular disease using Koch's postulates is desired yet this might not be possible.
The leading cause of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease, but infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in infants and children.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.
Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths.
Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response.
Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics. Infectious diseases resulted in 9.2 million deaths in 2013 (about 17% of all deaths). The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease.
A list of the more common and well-known diseases associated with infectious pathogens is provided and is not intended to be a complete listing.
Both PMWS and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) are associated to PCV-2. Many pigs affected by the circovirus also seem to develop secondary bacterial infections, like Glässer disease ("Haemophilus parasuis"), pulmonary pasteurellosis, colibacilosis, salmonellosis and others. Postmortem lesions occur in multiple organs, especially in lymphoid tissues and lung, giving rise to the term "multisystemic". Lesions may also affect the skin, kidney, reproductive tissue, brain, or blood vessels.
Wasting pigs is the most common sign of PMWS infection, increasing the mortality rate significantly.
Feline infectious anemia (FIA) is an infectious disease found in felines, causing anemia and other symptoms. The disease is caused by a variety of infectious agents, most commonly "Mycoplasma haemofelis" (which used to be called "Haemobartonella"). "Haemobartonella" and "Eperythrozoon" species were reclassified as mycoplasmas. Coinfection often occurs with other infectious agents, including: feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), "Ehrlichia" species, "Anaplasma phagocytophilum", and Candidatus "Mycoplasma haemominutum".
Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium "Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis" found mostly in goats and sheep that at present has no cure. It manifests itself predominantly in the form of large, pus-filled cysts on the neck, sides and udders of goats and sheep. The disease is spread mostly from an animal coming in contact with pus from a burst cyst on an infected animal, but the disease is highly contagious and is thought to also be spread by coughing or even by flies. Studies have found CL incidence in commercial goat herds as high as 30%.
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a severe viral disease of salmonid fish. It is caused by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, which is a member of the Birnaviridae family. This disease mainly affects young salmonids, such as trout or salmon, of less than six months, although adult fish may carry the virus without showing symptoms. Resistance to infection develops more rapidly in warmer water. It is highly contagious and found worldwide, but some regions have managed to eradicate or greatly reduce the incidence of disease. The disease is normally spread horizontally via infected water, but spread also occurs vertically. It is not a zoonosis.
The clinical presentation of prion diseases will vary from patient to patient. However, some general characteristics of prion diseases are listed below.
A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.
Non-contagious infections, by contrast, usually require a special mode of transmission between persons or hosts. These include need for intermediate vector species (mosquitoes that carry malaria) or by non-casual transfer of bodily fluid (such as transfusions, needle sharing or sexual contact).
The boundary between contagious and non-contagious infectious diseases is not perfectly drawn, as illustrated classically by tuberculosis, which is clearly transmissible from person to person, but was not classically considered a contagious disease. In the present day, most sexually transmitted diseases are considered contagious, but only some of them are subject to medical isolation.
A sharp rise in mortality is often seen (depending on the virulence of the disease). Other clinical signs include abdominal swelling, anorexia, abnormal swimming, darkening of the skin, and trailing of the feces from the vent. On necropsy, internal damage (viral necrosis) to the pancreas and thick mucus in the intestines often is present. Surviving fish should recover within one to two weeks.
Diagnostic methods for the detection of the disease include: characteristic histological pancreatic lesion, PCR, indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, and virus culture. High virus titers can be isolated from carrier animals.
A slow virus is a virus, or a viruslike agent, etiologically associated with a disease, having a long incubation period of months to years and then a gradual onset of symptoms which progress slowly but irreversibly and terminate in a severe compromised state or, more commonly, death.
A slow virus disease is a disease that, after an extended period of latency, follows a slow, progressive course spanning months to years, frequently involving the central nervous system and ultimately leading to death. Examples include the Visna-Maedi virus, in the genus Lentivirus (family Retroviridae), that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis which is apparently caused by the measles virus, as well as Paget's Disease of Bone (Osteitis Deformans) which is associated with paramyxoviridae, especially RSV and Rubeola (Measles).
Zoonoses are infectious diseases of animals (usually vertebrates) that can naturally be transmitted to humans.
Major modern diseases such as Ebola virus disease and salmonellosis are zoonoses. HIV was a zoonotic disease transmitted to humans in the early part of the 20th century, though it has now evolved to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of swine and bird flu are zoonoses; these viruses occasionally recombine with human strains of the flu and can cause pandemics such as the 1918 Spanish flu or the 2009 swine flu. "Taenia solium" infection is one of the neglected tropical diseases with public health and veterinary concern in endemic regions. Zoonoses can be caused by a range of disease pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites; of 1,415 pathogens known to infect humans, 61% were zoonotic. Most human diseases originated in animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve animal to human transmission, like rabies, are considered direct zoonosis.
Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis the disease is directly transmitted from animals to humans through media such as air (influenza) or through bites and saliva (rabies). In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector), which carry the disease pathogen without getting infected. When humans infect animals, it is called reverse zoonosis or anthroponosis. The term is from Greek: ζῷον "zoon" "animal" and νόσος "nosos" "sickness".
Equine infectious anemia or equine infectious anaemia (EIA), also known by horsemen as swamp fever, is a horse disease caused by a retrovirus and transmitted by bloodsucking insects. The virus ("EIAV") is endemic in the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle and Far East, Russia, and South Africa. The virus is a lentivirus, like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Like HIV, EIA can be transmitted through blood, milk, and body secretions.
Transmission is primarily through biting flies, such as the horse-fly and deer-fly. The virus survives up to 4 hours in the vector (epidemiology). Contaminated surgical equipment and recycled needles and syringes, and bits can transmit the disease. Mares can transmit the disease to their foals via the placenta.
The risk of transmitting the disease is greatest when an infected horse is ill, as the blood levels of the virus are then highest.
Zoonotic transmission can occur in any context in which there is companionistic (pets), economic (farming, etc.), predatory (hunting, butchering or consuming wild game) or research contact with or consumption of animals, animal products, or animal derivatives (vaccines, etc.).
Before puberty, the disease typically only produces flu-like symptoms, if any at all. When found, symptoms tend to be similar to those of common throat infections (mild pharyngitis, with or without tonsillitis).
Acute: The acute form is a sudden onset of the disease at full-force. Symptoms include high fever, anemia (due to the breakdown of red blood cells), weakness, swelling of the lower abdomen and legs, weak pulse, and irregular heartbeat. The horse may die suddenly.
Subacute: A slower, less severe progression of the disease. Symptoms include recurrent fever, weight loss, an enlarged spleen (felt during a rectal examination), anemia, and swelling of the lower chest, abdominal wall, penile sheath, scrotum, and legs.
Chronic: The horse tires easily and is unsuitable for work. The horse may have a recurrent fever and anemia, and may relapse to the subacute or acute form even several years after the original attack.
A horse may also not appear to have any symptoms, yet still tests positive for EIA antibodies. Such a horse can still pass on the disease. According to most veterinarians, horses diagnosed EIA positive usually do not show any sign of sickness or disease.
EIA may cause abortion in pregnant mares. This may occur at any time during the pregnancy if there is a relapse when the virus enters the blood. Most infected mares will abort, however some give birth to healthy foals. Foals are not necessarily infected.
Studies indicate that there are breeds with a tolerance to EIA.
Recent studies in Brazil on living wild horses have shown that in the Pantanal, about 30% of domesticated and about 5.5% of the wild horses are chronically infected with EIA.
White plague is a suite of coral diseases of which three types have been identified, initially in the Florida Keys. They are infectious diseases but it has proved difficult to identify the pathogens involved. White plague type II may be caused by the gram negative bacterium "Aurantimonas coralicida" in the order Rhizobiales but other bacteria have also been associated with diseased corals and viruses may also be implicated.
Chronic Lyme disease is a generally unrecognised diagnosis that encompasses "a broad array of illnesses or symptom complexes for which there is no reproducible or convincing scientific evidence of any relationship to "B. burgdorferi" infection." There is no clinical evidence that "chronic" Lyme disease is caused by a persistent infection. It is distinct from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, a set of lingering symptoms which may persist after successful treatment of infection with Lyme spirochetes. The symptoms of "chronic Lyme" are generic and non-specific "symptoms of life".
A number of alternative treatments are promoted for "chronic Lyme disease", of which possibly the most controversial and harmful is long-term antibiotic therapy, particularly intravenous antibiotics. Most medical authorities advise against long-term antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease, though they agree that some patients do experience lingering symptoms. Following disciplinary proceedings by State medical licensing boards in the United States, a subculture of "Lyme literate" physicians has successfully lobbied for specific legal protections, exempting them from the standard of care and Infectious Diseases Society of America treatment guidelines. This "troubling" political interference in medical care has been criticised as an example of "legislative alchemy", the process whereby pseudomedicine is legislated into practice.
The signs and symptoms of infectious mononucleosis vary with age.
Disseminated disease refers to a diffuse disease-process, generally either infectious or neoplastic. The term may sometimes also characterize connective tissue disease.
A disseminated infection, for example, has extended beyond its origin or nidus and involved the bloodstream to "seed" other areas of the body. Similarly, one can view metastatic cancer as a disseminated infection in that it has extended into the bloodstream or into the lymphatic system and thus "seeded" distant sites (a process known as metastasis).
Disseminated disease often contrasts localized disease.
Originally, the term referred as sometimes been broadened to encompass "any" communicable or infectious disease. Often the word can only be understood in context, where it is used to emphasise very infectious, easily transmitted, or especially severe communicable disease. They could be very dangerous.
A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities. The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks. In the case of livestock diseases, there may also be the legal requirement to destroy the infected livestock upon notification. Many governments have enacted regulations for reporting of both human and animal (generally livestock) diseases.