Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
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The mortality rate of the virus largely depends on the immune status of the infected dogs. Puppies experience the highest mortality rate, where complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis are more common. In older dogs that develop distemper encephalomyelitis, vestibular disease may present. Around 15% of canine inflammatory central nervous system diseases are a result of CDV.
Fetal infection is of most consequence as this can result in the birth of a persistently infected neonate. The effects of fetal infection with BVDV are dependent upon the stage of gestation at which the dam suffers acute infection.
BVDV infection of the dam prior to conception, and during the first 18 days of gestation, results in delayed conception and an increased calving to conception interval. Once the embryo is attached, infection from days 29–41 can result in embryonic infection and resultant embryonic death.
Infection of the dam from approximately day 30 of gestation until day 120 can result in immunotolerance and the birth of calves persistently infected with the virus.
BVDV infection between 80 and 150 days of gestation may be teratogenic, with the type of birth defect dependent upon the stage of fetal development at infection. Abortion may occur at any time during gestation. Infection after approximately day 120 can result in the birth of a normal fetus which is BVD antigen-negative and BVD antibody-positive. This occurs because the fetal immune system has developed, by this stage of gestation, and has the ability to recognise and fight off the invading virus, producing anti-BVD antibodies.
BVDV infection has a wide manifestation of clinical signs including fertility issues, milk drop, pyrexia, diarrhoea and fetal infection. Occasionally, a severe acute form of BVD may occur. These outbreaks are characterized by thrombocytopenia with high morbidity and mortality. However, clinical signs are frequently mild and infection insidious, recognised only by BVDV’s immunosuppressive effects perpetuating other circulating infectious diseases (particularly scours and pneumonias).
The mortality rate of chikungunya is slightly less than 1 in 1000. Those over the age of 65, neonates, and those with underlying chronic medical problems are most likely to have severe complications. Neonates are vulnerable as it is possible to vertically transmit chikungunya from mother to infant during delivery, which results in high rates of morbidity, as infants lack fully developed immune systems. The likelihood of prolonged symptoms or chronic joint pain is increased with increased age and prior rheumatological disease.
The prevalence of canine distemper in the community has decreased dramatically due to the availability of vaccinations. However, the disease continues to spread among unvaccinated populations, such as those in animal shelters and pet stores. This provides a great threat to both the rural and urban communities throughout the United States, affecting both shelter and domestic canines. Despite the effectiveness of the vaccination, outbreaks of this disease continue to occur nationally. In April 2011, the Arizona Humane Society released a valley-wide pet health alert throughout Phoenix, Arizona.
Outbreaks of canine distemper continue to occur throughout the United States and elsewhere, and are caused by many factors. These factors include the overpopulation of dogs and the irresponsibility of pet owners. The overpopulation of dogs is a national problem that organizations such as the Humane Society and ASPCA face every day. This problem is even greater within areas such as Arizona, owing to the vast amount of rural land. An unaccountable number of strays that lack vaccinations reside in these areas and are therefore more susceptible to diseases such as canine distemper. These strays act as a host for the virus, spreading it throughout the surrounding area, including urban areas. Puppies and dogs that have not received their shots can then be infected if in a place where many dogs interact, such as a dog park.
About 15–20% of hospitalized Lassa fever patients will die from the illness. The overall mortality rate is estimated to be 1%, but during epidemics, mortality can climb as high as 50%. The mortality rate is greater than 80% when it occurs in pregnant women during their third trimester; fetal death also occurs in nearly all those cases. Abortion decreases the risk of death to the mother. Some survivors experience lasting effects of the disease, and can include partial or complete deafness.
Because of treatment with ribavirin, fatality rates are continuing to decline.
Risk factors independently associated with developing a clinical infection with WNV include a suppressed immune system and a patient history of organ transplantation. For neuroinvasive disease the additional risk factors include older age (>50+), male sex, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus.
A genetic factor also appears to increase susceptibility to West Nile disease. A mutation of the gene "CCR5" gives some protection against HIV but leads to more serious complications of WNV infection. Carriers of two mutated copies of "CCR5" made up 4.0 to 4.5% of a sample of West Nile disease sufferers, while the incidence of the gene in the general population is only 1.0%.
Paravaccinia virus originates from livestock infected with bovine papular stomatitis. When a human makes physical contact with the livestock's muzzle, udders, or an infected area, the area of contact will become infected. Livestock may not show symptoms of bovine papular stomatitis and still be infected and contagious. Paravaccinia can enter the body though all pathways including: skin contact by mechanical means, through the respiratory tract, or orally. Oral or respiratory contraction may be more likely to cause systemic symptoms such as lesions across the whole body
A person who has not previously been infected with paravaccinia virus should avoid contact with infected livestock to prevent contraction of disease. There is no commercially available vaccination for cattle or humans against paravaccinia. However, following infection, immunization has been noted in humans, making re-infection difficult. Unlike other pox viruses, there is no record of contracting paravaccinia virus from another human. Further, cattle only show a short immunization after initial infection, providing opportunity to continue to infect more livestock and new human hosts.
Prevention strategies include reducing the breeding of midges through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between midges and people. This can be accomplished by reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled habitats and encourage the midge larvae to grow.
Oropouche fever is present in epidemics so the chances of one contracting it after being exposed to areas of midgets or mosquitoes is rare.
, no approved vaccines are available. A phase-II vaccine trial used a live, attenuated virus, to develop viral resistance in 98% of those tested after 28 days and 85% still showed resistance after one year. However, 8% of people reported transient joint pain, and attenuation was found to be due to only two mutations in the E2 glycoprotein. Alternative vaccine strategies have been developed, and show efficacy in mouse models. In August 2014 researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in the USA were testing an experimental vaccine which uses virus-like particles (VLPs) instead of attenuated virus. All the 25 people participated in this phase 1 trial developed strong immune responses. As of 2015, a phase 2 trial was planned, using 400 adults aged 18 to 60 and to take place at 6 locations in the Caribbean. Even with a vaccine, mosquito population control and bite prevention will be necessary to control chikungunya disease.
While the general prognosis is favorable, current studies indicate that West Nile Fever can often be more severe than previously recognized, with studies of various recent outbreaks indicating that it may take as long as 60–90 days to recover. People with milder WNF are just as likely as those with more severe manifestations of neuroinvasive disease to experience multiple long term (>1+ years) somatic complaints such as tremor, and dysfunction in motor skills and executive functions. People with milder illness are just as likely as people with more severe illness to experience adverse outcomes. Recovery is marked by a long convalescence with fatigue. One study found that neuroinvasive WNV infection was associated with an increased risk for subsequent kidney disease.
Lassa virus is a member of the Arenavirida family of viruses. Specifically it is an old world arenavirus, which is enveloped, single-stranded, and bi-segmented RNA. This virus has a both a large and a small genome section, with four lineages identified to date: Josiah (Sierra Leone), GA391 (Nigeria), LP (Nigeria) and strain AV.
One study has focused on identifying OROV through the use of RNA extraction from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This study revealed that OROV caused central nervous system infections in three patients. The three patients all had meningoencephalitis and also showed signs of clear lympho-monocytic cellular pattern in CSF, high protein, and normal to slightly decreased glucose levels indicating they had viral infections. Two of the patients already had underlying infections that can effect the CNS and immune system and in particular one of these patients has HIV/AIDS and the third patient has neurocysticercosis. Two patients were infected with OROV developed meningitis and it was theorized that this is due to them being immunocompromised. Through this it was revealed that it's possible that the invasion of the central nervous system by the oropouche virus can be performed by a pervious blood-brain barrier damage.
Paravaccinia is a member of the Parapoxvirus family. It has a cylindrical body about 140 X 310 nm in size, with convex ends covered in a criss-cross pattern of rope like structures. The virus is resistant to cold, dehydration, and temperatures up to 56 °C. Upon injecting a cell with its genome, the virus begins transcription in the cytoplasm using viral RNA polymerase. As the virus progresses through the cell, the host begins to replicate the viral genome between 140 minutes and 48 hours.
Bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease caused by a group of ruminant gamma herpes viruses including Alcelaphine gammaherpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and Ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) These viruses cause unapparent infection in their reservoir hosts (sheep with OvHV-2 and wildebeest with AlHV-1), but are usually fatal in cattle and other ungulates such as deer, antelope, and buffalo.
BMCF is an important disease where reservoir and susceptible animals mix. There is a particular problem with Bali cattle in Indonesia, bison in the US and in pastoralist herds in Eastern and Southern Africa.
Disease outbreaks in cattle are usually sporadic although infection of up to 40% of a herd has been reported. The reasons for this are unknown. Some species appear to be particularly susceptible, for example Pére Davids deer, Bali cattle and bison, with many deer dying within 48 hours of the appearance of the first symptoms and bison within three days. In contrast, post infection cattle will usually survive a week or more.
The study of RRF has been recently facilitated by the development of a mouse model. Mice infected with RRV develop hind-limb arthritis/arthralgia which is similar to human disease. The disease in mice is characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate including macrophages which are immunopathogenic and exacerbate disease. Furthermore, mice deficient in the C3 protein do not suffer from severe disease following infection. This indicates that an aberrant innate immune response is responsible for severe disease following RRV infection.
The term "bovine malignant catarrhal fever" has been applied to three different patterns of disease:
- In Africa, wildebeests carry a lifelong infection of AlHV-1 but are not affected by the disease. The virus is passed from mother to offspring and shed mostly in the nasal secretions of wildebeest calves under one year old. Wildebeest associated MCF is transmitted from wildebeest to cattle normally following the wildebeest calving period. Cattle of all ages are susceptible to the disease, with a higher infection rate in adults, particularly in peripartuent females. Cattle are infected by contact with the secretions, but do not spread the disease to other cattle. Because no commercial treatment or vaccine is available for this disease, livestock management is the only method of control. This involves keeping cattle away from wildebeest during the critical calving period. This results in Massai pastoralists in Tanzania and Kenya being excluded from prime pasture grazing land during the wet season leading to a loss in productivity. In Eastern and Southern Africa MCF is classed as one of the five most important problems affecting pastoralists along with East coast fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease and anthrax.Hartebeests and topi also may carry the disease. However, hartebeests and other antelopes are infected by a variant, Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2.
- Throughout the rest of the world, cattle and deer contract BMCF by close contact with sheep or goats during lambing. The natural host reservoir for Ovine herpesvirus 2 is the subfamily Caprinae (sheep and goats) whilst MCF affected animals are from the families Bovidae, Cervidae and suidae. Susceptibility to OHV-2 varies by species, with domestic cattle and zebus somewhat resistant, water buffalo and most deer somewhat susceptible, and bison, Bali cattle, and Pere David's deer very susceptible. OHV-2 viral DNA has been detected in the alimentary, respiratory and urino-genital tracts of sheep all of which could be possible transmission routes. Antibody from sheep and from cattle with BMCF is cross reactive with AlHV-1.
- AHV-1/OHV-2 can also cause problems in zoological collections, where inapparently infected hosts (wildebeest and sheep) and susceptible hosts are often kept in close proximity.
- Feedlot bison in North America not in contact with sheep have also been diagnosed with a form of BMCF. OHV-2 has been recently documented to infect herds of up to 5 km away from the nearest lambs, with the levels of infected animals proportional to the distance away from the closest herds of sheep.
The incubation period of BMCF is not known, however intranasal challenge with AHV-1 induced MCF in one hundred percent of challenged cattle between 2.5 and 6 weeks.
Shedding of the virus is greater from 6–9 month old lambs than from adults. After experimental infection of sheep, there is limited viral replication in nasal cavity in the first 24 hours after infection, followed by later viral replication in other tissues.
Rotavirus A, which accounts for more than 90% of rotavirus gastroenteritis in humans, is endemic worldwide. Each year rotavirus causes millions of cases of diarrhoea in developing countries, almost 2 million resulting in hospitalisation and an estimated 453,000 resulting in the death of a child younger than five. This is about 40 per cent of all hospital admissions related to diarrhea in children under five worldwide.
In the United States alone—before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination programme—over 2.7 million cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred annually, 60,000 children were hospitalised and around 37 died from the results of the infection. The major role of rotavirus in causing diarrhoea is not widely recognised within the public health community, particularly in developing countries. Almost every child has been infected with rotavirus by age five. It is the leading single cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and children, being responsible for about 20% of cases, and accounts for 50% of the cases requiring hospitalisation. Rotavirus causes 37% of deaths attributable to diarrhoea and 5% of all deaths in children younger than five. Boys are twice as likely as girls to be admitted to hospital.
Rotavirus infections occur primarily during cool, dry seasons. The number attributable to food contamination is unknown.
Outbreaks of rotavirus A diarrhoea are common among hospitalised infants, young children attending day care centres, and elderly people in nursing homes. An outbreak caused by contaminated municipal water occurred in Colorado in 1981.
During 2005, the largest recorded epidemic of diarrhoea occurred in Nicaragua. This unusually large and severe outbreak was associated with mutations in the rotavirus A genome, possibly helping the virus escape the prevalent immunity in the population. A similar large outbreak occurred in Brazil in 1977.
Rotavirus B, also called adult diarrhoea rotavirus or ADRV, has caused major epidemics of severe diarrhoea affecting thousands of people of all ages in China. These epidemics occurred as a result of sewage contamination of drinking water. Rotavirus B infections also occurred in India in 1998; the causative strain was named CAL. Unlike ADRV, the CAL strain is endemic. To date, epidemics caused by rotavirus B have been confined to mainland China, and surveys indicate a lack of immunity to this species in the United States.
EVD has a high risk of death in those infected which varies between 25 percent and 90 percent of those infected. , the average risk of death among those infected is 50 percent. The highest risk of death was 90 percent in the 2002–2003 Republic of the Congo outbreak.
Death, if it occurs, follows typically six to sixteen days after symptoms appear and is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss. Early supportive care to prevent dehydration may reduce the risk of death.
If an infected person survives, recovery may be quick and complete. Prolonged cases are often complicated by the occurrence of long-term problems, such as inflammation of the testicles, joint pains, muscular pain, skin peeling, or hair loss. Eye symptoms, such as light sensitivity, excess tearing, and vision loss have been described.
Ebola can stay in some body parts like the eyes, breasts, and testicles after infection. Sexual transmission after recovery has been suspected. If sexual transmission occurs following recovery it is believed to be a rare event. One case of a condition similar to meningitis has been reported many months after recovery as of Oct. 2015.
A study of 44 survivors of the Ebola virus in Sierra Leone reported musculoskeletal pain in 70%, headache in 48% and eye problems in 14%.
There is one intra-nasal FIP vaccine available: its use is controversial but in an independent study the authors concluded that vaccination can protect cats with no or low FCoV antibody titres and that in some cats vaccine failure was probably due to pre-existing infection.
Prevention of FCoV infection, and therefore FIP, in kittens
Kittens are protected from infection by maternally derived antibody until it wanes, usually around 5–7 weeks of age, therefore it is possible to prevent infection of kittens by removing them from sources of infection. However, FCoV is a very contagious virus and such prevention does require rigorous hygiene.
The VHF viruses are spread in a variety of ways. Some may be transmitted to humans through a respiratory route. According to Soviet defector Ken Alibek, Soviet scientists concluded China may have tried to weaponise a VHF virus during the late 1980's but discontinued to do so after an outbreak . The virus is considered by military medical planners to have a potential for aerosol dissemination, weaponizaton, or likelihood for confusion with similar agents that might be weaponized.
There is currently no vaccine available. The primary method of disease prevention is minimizing mosquito bites, as the disease is only transmitted by mosquitoes. Typical advice includes use of mosquito repellent and mosquito screens, wearing light coloured clothing, and minimising standing water around homes (e.g. removing Bromeliads, plant pots, garden ponds). Staying indoors during dusk/dawn hours when mosquitos are most active may also be effective. Bush camping is a common precipitant of infection so particular care is required.
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the name given to an uncommon, but usually fatal, aberrant immune response to infection with feline coronavirus (FCoV).
Five families of RNA viruses have been recognised as being able to cause hemorrhagic fevers.
- The family "Arenaviridae" include the viruses responsible for Lassa fever (Lassa virus), Lujo virus, Argentine (Junin virus), Bolivian (Machupo virus), Brazilian (Sabiá virus), Chapare hemorrhagic fever (Chapare virus) and Venezuelan (Guanarito virus) hemorrhagic fevers.
- The family "Bunyaviridae" include the members of the "Hantavirus" genus that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus from the "Nairovirus" genus, Garissa virus and Ilesha virus from the "Orthobunyavirus" and the Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus from the "Phlebovirus" genus.
- The family "Filoviridae" include Ebola virus and Marburg virus.
- The family "Flaviviridae" include dengue, yellow fever, and two viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis group that cause VHF: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease virus.
- In September 2012 scientists writing in the journal PLOS Pathogens reported the isolation of a member of the "Rhabdoviridae" responsible for 2 fatal and 2 non-fatal cases of hemorrhagic fever in the Bas-Congo district of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The non-fatal cases occurred in healthcare workers involved in the treatment of the other two, suggesting the possibility of person-to-person transmission. This virus appears to be unrelated to previously known Rhabdoviruses.
The pathogen that caused the cocoliztli epidemics in Mexico of 1545 and 1576 is still unknown.
Because improved sanitation does not decrease the prevalence of rotaviral disease, and the rate of hospitalisations remains high, despite the use of oral rehydrating medicines, the primary public health intervention is vaccination. Two rotavirus vaccines against Rotavirus A infection are safe and effective in children: Rotarix by GlaxoSmithKline and RotaTeq by Merck. Both are taken orally and contain attenuated live virus.
Rotavirus vaccines are licensed in more than 100 countries, but only 17 countries have introduced routine rotavirus vaccination. Following the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination in the US in 2006, the health burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis "rapidly and dramatically reduced" despite lower coverage levels compared to other routine infant immunizations. Clinical trials of the Rotarix rotavirus vaccine in South Africa and Malawi, found that the vaccine significantly reduced severe diarrhoea episodes caused by rotavirus, and that the infection was preventable by vaccination. A 2012 Cochrane review of 41 clinical trials that included 186,263 participants concluded Rotarix and RotaTeq are effective vaccines. Additional rotavirus vaccines are under development. The World Health Organization(WHO) recommends that rotavirus vaccine be included in all national immunisation programmes. The incidence and severity of rotavirus infections has declined significantly in countries that have acted on this recommendation.
The Rotavirus Vaccine Program is a collaboration between PATH, the (WHO), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and is funded by the GAVI Alliance. The Program aims to reduce child morbidity and mortality from diarrhoeal disease by making a vaccine against rotavirus available for use in developing countries.