Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
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A presumptive diagnosis can be made based on the history and clinical signs. Definitive diagnosis is achieved by direct or indirect fluorescent antibody testing (FAT), PCR, post mortem (signs include petechia and pulmonary congestion), histopathology or electron microscopy.
Removing the pig from the stressful situation can prevent the episode.
Sedation and glucocorticoids may be beneficial.
Under anaesthesia, dantrolene sodium is a very effective treatment.
Genetic testing enables animals to be removed from the herd if they are positive for the gene. This means that the disorder is rare in the developed world these days.
Stress at slaughter should be minimised in all cases.
François Madec, a French author, has written many recommendations on how reduce PMWS symptoms. They are mostly measures for disinfection, management, and hygiene, referred to as the "20 Madec Points" [Madec & Waddilove, 2002].
These measures have recently been expanded upon by Dr. David Barcellos, a professor at the Veterinary College in the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. He presented these points at "1st Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Symposium about swine management, reproduction, and hygiene".
He divided his points by pig growth stage, and they can be loosely summarized as:
- keep the gutters clean
- increase feeder space
- use pens or small cages with solid dividers
- avoid mixing pigs from different origins
- improve the quality of air
- decrease maximum capacity, giving each pig more room
- separate sick animals as soon as possible, and treat them in a hospital pen. If they do not respond to antibiotics in three days, they should be culled
- control access of people and other animals
- reduce invironmental stress factors such as gases and air currents
- use immunizations and preventive medications for secondary agents commonly associated with PMWS
Truckloads or railcar loads of PSS-susceptible pigs may be found with a higher-than-average percentage dead on arrival after stressful events such as transport.
Initial signs of the onset of PSS are pyrexia, panting, sweating, tachycardia and arrhythmias. Chronic cases may show muscle atrophy.
Under halothane anaesthesia, pigs will suddenly become rigid and pyrexic.
The halothane challenge was the historical method of diagnosis.
Genetic testing via a PCR enables affected and carrier animals to be found.
Psychologist Melanie Joy has likened PSS to post-traumatic stress disorder in humans.
Often no treatment is required. However, as porcine cytomegalovirus is a herpes virus it remains latent and sheds at times of stress. Therefore husbandry measures to minimise stress levels should be in place.
Both PMWS and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) are associated to PCV-2. Many pigs affected by the circovirus also seem to develop secondary bacterial infections, like Glässer disease ("Haemophilus parasuis"), pulmonary pasteurellosis, colibacilosis, salmonellosis and others. Postmortem lesions occur in multiple organs, especially in lymphoid tissues and lung, giving rise to the term "multisystemic". Lesions may also affect the skin, kidney, reproductive tissue, brain, or blood vessels.
Wasting pigs is the most common sign of PMWS infection, increasing the mortality rate significantly.
There is no vaccine for SVD. Prevention measures are similar to those for foot-and-mouth disease: controlling animals imported from infected areas, and sanitary disposal of garbage from international aircraft and ships, and thorough cooking of garbage. Infected animals should be placed in strict quarantine. Eradication measures for the disease include quarantining infected areas, depopulation and disposal of infected and contact pigs, and cleaning and disinfecting
Tiamulin, chlortetracycline or tilmicosin may be used to treat and prevent the spread of the disease.
Vaccination is a very effective method of control, and also has an effect on pig productivity.
Eradication of the disease is possible but the organism commonly reinfects herds.
The main candidates for testing are those with a close relative who has suffered an episode of MH or have been shown to be susceptible. The standard procedure is the "caffeine-halothane contracture test", CHCT. A muscle biopsy is carried out at an approved research center, under local anesthesia. The fresh biopsy is bathed in solutions containing caffeine or halothane and observed for contraction; under good conditions, the sensitivity is 97% and the specificity 78%. Negative biopsies are "not" definitive, so any patient who is suspected of MH by their medical history or that of blood relatives is generally treated with non-triggering anesthetics, even if the biopsy was negative. Some researchers advocate the use of the "calcium-induced calcium release" test in addition to the CHCT to make the test more specific.
Less invasive diagnostic techniques have been proposed. Intramuscular injection of halothane 6 vol% has been shown to result in higher than normal increases in local among patients with known malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. The sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 75%. For patients at similar risk to those in this study, this leads to a positive predictive value of 80% and negative predictive value of 100%. This method may provide a suitable alternative to more invasive techniques.
A 2002 study examined another possible metabolic test. In this test, intramuscular injection of caffeine was followed by local measurement of the ; those with known MH susceptibility had a significantly higher (63 versus 44 mmHg). The authors propose larger studies to assess the test's suitability for determining MH risk.
Genetic testing is being performed in a limited fashion to determine susceptibility to MH. In people with a family history of MH, analysis for "RYR1" mutations may be useful.
Although no specific treatment for acute infection with SuHV1 is available, vaccination can alleviate clinical signs in pigs of certain ages. Typically, mass vaccination of all pigs on the farm with a modified live virus vaccine is recommended. Intranasal vaccination of sows and neonatal piglets one to seven days old, followed by intramuscular (IM) vaccination of all other swine on the premises, helps reduce viral shedding and improve survival. The modified live virus replicates at the site of injection and in regional lymph nodes. Vaccine virus is shed in such low levels, mucous transmission to other animals is minimal. In gene-deleted vaccines, the thymidine kinase gene has also been deleted; thus, the virus cannot infect and replicate in neurons. Breeding herds are recommended to be vaccinated quarterly, and finisher pigs should be vaccinated after levels of maternal antibody decrease. Regular vaccination results in excellent control of the disease. Concurrent antibiotic therapy via feed and IM injection is recommended for controlling secondary bacterial pathogens.
Pigs usually cough and may show more severe respiratory signs if secondary bacteria have invaded. This may lead to signs of pneumonia and systemic involvement.
Diagnosis relies on culture and isolation of the bacteria but this can be challenging.
PCR, ELISA, fluorescent antibody testing and post-mortem findings all help in making the diagnosis.
The CDC recommends real-time PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. The oral or nasal fluid collection and RNA virus preserving filter paper card is commercially available. This method allows a specific diagnosis of novel influenza (H1N1) as opposed to seasonal influenza. Near-patient point-of-care tests are in development.
Prevention of swine influenza has three components: prevention in pigs, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans.
In October 2007 an astute medical interpreter noticed similar neurological symptoms being reported by Spanish-speaking patients seeking treatment from different physicians at the Austin Medical Center, in Austin, Minnesota. Not only did these patients share similar neurological symptoms, they also worked at the same pork processing plant. Dr. Daniel LaChance, a physician at both the Austin Medical Center and the Mayo Clinic in nearby Rochester, Minnesota, was notified. He launched a request to area physicians to refer other patients with similar symptoms to him. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) was notified and began an investigation into the "outbreak." The MDH identified workers from two other pork processing plants in Indiana and Nebraska who also had parallel neurological complaints. Several agencies including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were brought in to assist. Simultaneously investigations were conducted to rule out contagious disease, to locate the source or carrier, and to identify what exactly was causing these workers to develop these symptoms.
Removal from exposure was the first line of treatment. Due to progressive sensory loss and weakness, immunotherapy was often required. These treatments included intravenous methylprednisolone, oral prednisone, azathioprine, and/or immunoglobulin. All 24 patients improved, including 7 who received no treatment and 17 who required immunotherapy.
The illness is generally self-limiting. Management on the whole is preventative, by limiting exposure to mouldy environments with ventilation, or by wearing respiratory protection such as facemasks.
SuHV1 can be used to analyze neural circuits in the central nervous system (CNS). For this purpose the attenuated (less virulent) Bartha SuHV1 strain is commonly used and is employed as a retrograde and anterograde transneuronal tracer. In the retrograde direction, SuHV1-Bartha is transported to a neuronal cell body via its axon, where it is replicated and dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and the dendritic tree. SuHV1-Bartha released at the synapse is able to cross the synapse to infect the axon terminals of synaptically connected neurons, thereby propagating the virus; however, the extent to which non-synaptic transneuronal transport may also occur is uncertain. Using temporal studies and/or genetically engineered strains of SuHV1-Bartha, second, third, and higher order neurons may be identified in the neural network of interest.
It is expected that there will be no new cases of progressive inflammatory neuropathy since the process of aerosolizing the pig brains has been discontinued at all pork processing facilities.
The diagnosis is confirmed by bone marrow smears that show "giant inclusion bodies" in the cells that develop into white blood cells (leukocyte precursor cells). CHS can be diagnosed prenatally by examining a sample of hair from a fetal scalp biopsy or testing leukocytes from a fetal blood sample.
Under light microscopy the hairs present evenly distributed, regular melanin granules, larger than those found in normal hairs. Under polarized light microscopy these hairs exhibit a bright and polychromatic refringence pattern.
Screening generally only takes place among those displaying several of the symptoms of ABCD, but a study on a large group of institutionalized deaf people in Columbia revealed that 5.38% of them were Waardenburg patients. Because of its rarity, none of the patients were diagnosed with ABCD (Waardenburg Type IV). Nothing can be done to prevent the disease.
Swine vesicular disease is most commonly brought into a herd by the introduction of a subclinically infected pig.
The disease can be transmitted in feed containing infected meat scraps, or by direct contact with infected feces (such as in an improperly cleaned truck).
The occurrence of WS has been reported to be one in 45,000 in Europe. The diagnosis can be made prenatally by ultrasound due to the phenotype displaying pigmentary disturbances, facial abnormalities, and other developmental defects. After birth, the diagnosis is initially made symptomatically and can be confirmed through genetic testing. If the diagnosis is not made early enough, complications can arise from
Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is best known as a condition affecting Arabian horses. It has also been observed in the Curly horse, Miniature horse, the Gotland Pony, one Eriskay Pony, and possibly the Oldenburg. Most foals appear normal at birth, with symptoms noticeable at an average age of four months, though there have been cases where the condition is first seen shortly after birth and other cases where symptoms are first recognized in horses over one year of age.
Breeds DNA tested that reveal some carrier lines, but to date no affected animals, include the Welsh pony and the Trakehner. However, other breeds heavily influenced by Arabian breeding, such as the Thoroughbred and the American Saddlebred, do not appear to carry the mutation.
In horses, CA is believed to be linked to an autosomal recessive gene. This means it is not sex-linked, and the allele has to be carried and passed on by both parents in order for an affected animal to be born. Horses that only carry one copy of the gene may pass it on to their offspring, but themselves are perfectly healthy—without symptoms of the disease. Because it is recessive, the allele for CA may pass through multiple generations before it is expressed.
CA is sometimes misdiagnosed. Though the symptoms are quite distinguishable from other neurological conditions, it has been confused with Wobbler's syndrome, Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), and injury-related problems such as a concussion.
A DNA test which identifies markers associated with cerebellar abiotrophy became available in 2008. The test was refined to identify the most likely mutations, and retesting of earlier samples based on an earlier indirect marker test developed by UCD, indicated a 97% accuracy rate for the old test relative to the newer version, with no false negatives. The causative mutation was identified in 2011. Research on CA and the DNA test was led by the Veterinary Genetics Laboratory at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Researchers working on this problem include Dr. Cecilia Penedo, PhD, and Leah Brault, PhD. The late Dr. Ann T. Bowling made significant early contributions to the genetics research on CA.
It was recognised as a distinct clinical syndrome in the 1980s. Previously, cases had been reported and given various names such as pulmonary mycotoxicosis, silo unloader’s syndrome, grain fever, toxin fever, humidifier fever, mill fever, toxic alveolitis or allergic alveolitis. In 1994, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health published case reports and highlighted the urgency for study of the syndrome.
Research and data collection in the agricultural industry is difficult, as many workers are casual.
The incubation period for foot-and-mouth disease virus has a range between one and 12 days. The disease is characterized by high fever that declines rapidly after two or three days, blisters inside the mouth that lead to excessive secretion of stringy or foamy saliva and to drooling, and blisters on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. Adult animals may suffer weight loss from which they do not recover for several months, as well as swelling in the testicles of mature males, and in cows, milk production can decline significantly. Though most animals eventually recover from FMD, the disease can lead to myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and death, especially in newborn animals. Some infected ruminants remain asymptomatic carriers, but they nonetheless carry FMDV and may be able to transmit it to others. Pigs cannot serve as asymptomatic carriers.