Deep Learning Technology: Sebastian Arnold, Betty van Aken, Paul Grundmann, Felix A. Gers and Alexander Löser. Learning Contextualized Document Representations for Healthcare Answer Retrieval. The Web Conference 2020 (WWW'20)
Funded by The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy; Grant: 01MD19013D, Smart-MD Project, Digital Technologies
Many cases of croup have been prevented by immunization for influenza and diphtheria. At one time, croup referred to a diphtherial disease, but with vaccination, diphtheria is now rare in the developed world.
Viral croup is usually a self-limiting disease, with half of cases resolving in a day and 80% of cases in two days. It can very rarely result in death from respiratory failure and/or cardiac arrest. Symptoms usually improve within two days, but may last for up to seven days. Other uncommon complications include bacterial tracheitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary edema.
Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. About 5% of adults are affected and about 6% of children have at least one episode a year. It occurs more often in the winter.
In infants under one year of age, acute bronchitis was the most common reason for admission to the hospital after an emergency department visit in the US in 2011.
To help the bronchial tree heal faster and not make bronchitis worse, smokers should quit smoking completely.
Lower respiratory infectious disease is the fifth-leading cause of death and the combined leading infectious cause of death, being responsible for 2·74 million deaths worldwide. This is generally similar to estimates in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study.
This total only accounts for "Streptococcus pneumoniae" and "Haemophilus Influenzae" infections and does not account for atypical or nosocomial causes of lower respiratory disease, therefore underestimating total disease burden.
Vaccination helps prevent bronchopneumonia, mostly against influenza viruses, adenoviruses, measles, rubella, streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae, diphtheria, bacillus anthracis, chickenpox, and bordetella pertussis.
Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. About 5% of adults are affected and about 6% of children have at least one episode a year. It occurs more often in the winter. More than 10 million people in the United States visit a doctor each year for this condition with about 70% receiving antibiotics which are mostly not needed. There are efforts to decrease the use of antibiotics in acute bronchitis.
Chronic bronchitis has a 3.4% to 22% prevalence rate among the general population. Individuals over the age of 45, smokers, those that live in areas with high air pollution and those have asthma have a higher risk of developing chronic bronchitis. This wide range is due to the different definitions of chronic bronchitis which can be defined based on signs and symptoms or the clinical diagnosis of the disorder. Chronic bronchitis tends to affect men more often than women. While the primary risk factor for chronic bronchitis is smoking, there is still a 4%-22% chance that people with chronic bronchitis were never smokers. This might suggest other risk factors such as the inhalation of fuels, dusts, and fumes. Obesity has also been linked to an increased risk in the onset of chronic bronchitis. In the United States in the year 2014 per 100,000 population the death rate of chronic bronchitis was 0.2%.
Mortality caused by HPIVs in developed regions of the world remains rare. Where mortality has occurred, it is principally in the three core risk groups (very young, elderly and immuno-compromised). Long term changes can however be associated with airway remodelling and are believed to be a significant cause of morbidity. The exact associations between HPIVs and diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still being investigated.
In developing regions of the world, the highest risk group in terms of mortality remains pre-school children. Mortality may be as a consequence of primary viral infection or secondary problems such as bacterial infection. Predispositions, such as malnutrition and other deficiencies may further elevate the chances of mortality associated with infection.
Overall, LRI's cause approximately 25–30% of total deaths in pre-school children in the developing world. HPIVs is believed to be associated with 10% of all LRI cases, thus remaining a significant cause of mortality.
Numerous factors have been suggested and linked to a higher risk of acquiring the infection, inclusive of malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, absence of breastfeeding during the early stages of life, environmental pollution and overcrowding.
As the lungs tend to be vulnerable organs due to their exposure to harmful particles in the air, several things can cause an acute exacerbation of COPD:
- Respiratory infection, being responsible for approximately half of COPD exacerbations. Approximately half of these are due to viral infections and another half appears to be caused by bacterial infections. Common bacterial pathogens of acute exacerbations include "Haemophilus influenzae", "Streptococcus pneumoniae" and "Moraxella catarrhalis". Less common bacterial pathogens include "Chlamydia pneumoniae" and "MRSA". Pathogens seen more frequently in patients with impaired lung function (FEV<35% of predicted) include "Haemophilus parainfluenzae" (after repeated use of antibiotics), "Mycoplasma pneumoniae" and gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens like "Pseudomonas aeruginosa" and "Klebsiella pneumoniae".
- Allergens, e.g., pollens, wood or cigarette smoke, pollution
- Toxins, including a variety of different chemicals
- Air pollution
- Failing to follow a drug therapy program, e.g. improper use of an inhaler
In one-third of all COPD exacerbation cases, the cause cannot be identified.
Acute exacerbations can be partially prevented. Some infections can be prevented by vaccination against pathogens such as influenza and "Streptococcus pneumoniae". Regular medication use can prevent some COPD exacerbations; long acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs), long-acting anticholinergics, inhaled corticosteroids and low-dose theophylline have all been shown to reduce the frequency of COPD exacerbations. Other methods of prevention include:
- Smoking cessation and avoiding dust, passive smoking, and other inhaled irritants
- Yearly influenza and 5-year pneumococcal vaccinations
- Regular exercise, appropriate rest, and healthy nutrition
- Avoiding people currently infected with e.g. cold and influenza
- Maintaining good fluid intake and humidifying the home, in order to help reduce the formation of thick sputum and chest congestion.
Laryngitis that continues for more than three weeks is considered chronic. If laryngeal symptoms last for more than three weeks, a referral should be made for further examination, including direct laryngoscopy. The prognosis for chronic laryngitis varies depending on the cause of the laryngitis.
Long-term antibiotics, while they decrease rates of infection during treatment, have an unknown effect on long-term outcomes such as hearing loss. This method of prevention has been associated with emergence of antibiotic-resistant otitic bacteria. They are thus not recommended.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in early infancy, decreases the risk of acute otitis media in healthy infants. PCV is recommended for all children, and, if implemented broadly, PCV would have a significant public health benefit. Influenza vaccine is recommended annually for all children. PCV does not appear to decrease the risk of otitis media when given to high-risk infants or for older children who have previously experienced otitis media.
Risk factors such as season, allergy predisposition and presence of older siblings are known to be determinants of recurrent otitis media and persistent middle-ear effusions (MEE). History of recurrence, environmental exposure to tobacco smoke, use of daycare, and lack of breastfeeding have all been associated with increased risk of development, recurrence, and persistent MEE. Thus, cessation of smoking in the home should be encouraged, daycare attendance should be avoided or daycare facilities with the fewest attendees should be recommended, and breastfeeding should be promoted.
There is some evidence that breastfeeding for the first year of life is associated with a reduction in the number and duration of OM infections. Pacifier use, on the other hand, has been associated with more frequent episodes of AOM.
Evidence does not support zinc supplementation as an effort to reduce otitis rates except maybe in those with severe malnutrition such as marasmus.
Treatment is often supportive in nature, and depends on the severity and type of laryngitis (acute or chronic). General measures to relieve symptoms of laryngitis include behaviour modification, hydration and humidification.
Vocal hygiene (care of the voice) is very important to relieve symptoms of laryngitis. Vocal hygiene involves measures such as
- Resting the voice
- Drinking sufficient amounts of water
- Reducing caffeine and alcohol intake
- Stopping smoking
- Limiting throat clearing
Voice hygiene programs are given by speech-language pathologists. These programs typically include the following components:
- Addressing amount and type of voice use
- Reducing behaviours that are damaging to the vocal folds
- Increasing hydration
- Adjusting lifestyle (for example, limiting caffeine and managing medical conditions)
Adhesive otitis media occurs when a thin retracted ear drum becomes sucked into the middle-ear space and stuck (i.e., adherent) to the ossicles and other bones of the middle ear.
Sixty percent of people with acute interstitial pneumonitis will die in the first six months of illness. The median survival is 1½ months.
However, most people who have one episode do not have a second. People who survive often recover lung function completely.
FLD affects approximately .5%-3% of farmers. In some regions of the world such as Asia, the infection rate is more around 6%.
Acute interstitial pneumonitis occurs most frequently among people older than forty years old. It affects men and women equally. There are no known risk factors; in particular, smoking is not associated with increased risk.
It may result in death, and it is one of the most common causes of death for people with sickle cell anemia.
The only prevention for FLD is ventilating the work areas putting workers at risk and using face masks to filter out the antigens attempting to enter the lungs through the air.
Hydroxyurea is a medication that can help to prevent acute chest syndrome. It may cause a low white blood cell count, which can predispose the person to some types of infection.
Acute cerebellar ataxia is the most common cause of unsteady gait in children. The condition is rare in children older than ten years of age. Most commonly acute cerebellar ataxia affects children between age 2 and 7 years.
Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest, or mediastinum. It can be either acute or chronic.
Acute mediastinitis is usually bacterial and due to rupture of organs in the mediastinum. As the infection can progress rapidly, this is considered a serious condition. Chronic sclerosing (or fibrosing) mediastinitis, while potentially serious, is caused by a long-standing inflammation of the mediastinum, leading to growth of acellular collagen and fibrous tissue within the chest and around the central vessels and airways. It has a different cause, treatment, and prognosis than acute infectious mediastinitis.
Space Infections : Pretracheal space - lies anterior to trachea. Pretracheal space infection leads to mediastinitis. Here, the fascia fuses with the pericardium and the parietal pleura , which explains the occurrence of empyema and pericardial effusion in mediastinitis.
Before the development of modern cardiovascular surgery, cases of acute mediastinitis usually arose from either perforation of the esophagus or from contiguous spread of odontogenic or retropharyngeal infections. However, in modern practice, most cases of acute mediastinitis result from complications of cardiovascular or endoscopic surgical procedures.
Treatment usually involves aggressive intravenous antibiotic therapy and hydration. If discrete fluid collections or grossly infected tissue have formed (such as abscesses), they may have to be surgically drained or debrided.