It has been observed in spiny lobsters ("Panulirus ornatus") in Vietnam, where it is caused by a species of "Fusarium".
It has been observed in shrimp, where the agent is microscopic protozoan "Hyalophysa chattoni" or a close relative, in Galveston Bay, Texas and other locations.
There are multiple sources known to cause black gill disease. Poor pond conditions can cause debris to build up in the gills turning them black. Certain kinds of bacteria and the fungus genus Fusarium are also known causes.
With extra care taken to the health of the shrimp, it is possible to prevent cases of black gill disease. The water should have 10-20 parts per thousand parts salinity and filtered.