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Myalgia

Abstract

Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. The most common causes are the overuse or over-stretching of a muscle or group of muscles. Myalgia without a traumatic history is often due to viral infections. Longer-term myalgias may be indicative of a metabolic myopathy, some nutritional deficiencies or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Causes

The most common causes of myalgia are overuse, injury or strain. However, myalgia can also be caused by diseases, disorders, medications, or as a response to a vaccination. It is also a sign of acute rejection after heart transplant surgery.

The most common causes are:

Causes | Overuse

Overuse of a muscle is using it too much, too soon and/or too often. Examples are:

- Repetitive strain injury.

Causes | Injury

The most common causes of myalgia by injury are: sprains and strains.

Causes | Autoimmune

Multiple sclerosis (neurologic pain interpreted as muscular), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome), Myositis, Mixed connective tissue disease, Lupus erythematosus, Fibromyalgia syndrome, Familial Mediterranean fever, Polyarteritis nodosa, Devic's disease, Morphea, Sarcoidosis

Causes | Metabolic defect

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, Conn's syndrome, Adrenal insufficiency, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Diabetes, Hypogonadism, postorgasmic illness syndrome (POIS).

Causes | Other

Chronic fatigue syndrome a.k.a. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Channelopathy, Ehlers Danlos Syndrome, Stickler Syndrome, Hypokalemia, Hypotonia (Low Muscle Tone), Exercise intolerance, Mastocytosis, Peripheral neuropathy, Eosinophilia myalgia syndrome, Barcoo Fever, Herpes, Hemochromatosis a.k.a. Iron Overload Disorder, Delayed onset muscle soreness, AIDS, HIV, Tumor-induced osteomalacia, Hypovitaminosis D, infarction

Causes | Withdrawal syndrome from certain drugs

Sudden cessation of high-dose corticosteroids, opioids, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, caffeine or alcohol can induce myalgia in many respects.