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Marshall–Smith syndrome

Abstract

Marshall-Smith Syndrome, discovered in 1971 (Marshall, Graham, Scott, Boner, & Smith), is characterized by unusual accelerated skeletal maturation (usually starting before birth) and symptoms like conspicuous physical characteristics, respiratory difficulties, and mental retardation. Cases described in the literature show a clinical variability regarding related symptoms. For instance, respiratory difficulties are ranging from absent to severe difficulties.

Phenotype

The syndrome is a rare clinical disorder.

- Physical

- Overgrowth

- Accelerated skeletal maturation

- Dysmorphic facial features

- Prominent eyes

- Bluish sclerae

- Coarse eyebrows

- Upturned nose

- Radiologic examination

- Accelerated osseous maturation

- Phalangeal abnormalities

- Tubular thinning of the long bones

- Skull abnormalities

- Mental

- Often associated with intellectual disability (of variable degree)

Genotype

The first gene that could cause the syndrome is described recently and is called NF1X (chromosome 19: 19p13.1).

Health and screening

Respiratory complications are often cause of death in early infancy.

Related syndromes

Marshall–Smith syndrome is not to be confused with:

- Marshall syndrome (aka.Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA syndrome, see also: Periodic fever syndrome)

- Sotos (like) syndrome

- Weaver-Smith syndrome (WSS)

Research

After the first discovery and description of Marshall–Smith syndrome in 1971, research to this rare syndrome has been carried out.

- Adam, M., Hennekam, R.C.M., Butler, M.G., Raf, M., Keppen, L., Bull, M., Clericuzio, C., Burke, L., Guttacher, A., Ormond, K., & Hoyme, H.E. (2002). Marshall–Smith syndrome: An osteochondrodysplasia with connective tissue abnormalities. 23rd Annual David W. Smith Workshop on Malformations and Morphogenesis, August 7, Clemson, SC.

- Adam MP, Hennekam RC, Keppen LD, Bull MJ, Clericuzio CL, Burke LW, Guttmacher AE, Ormond KE and Hoyme HE: Marshall-Smith Syndrome: Natural history and evidence of an osteochondrodysplasia with connective tissue abnormalities. American Journal of Medical Genetics 137A:117–124, 2005.

- Baldellou Vazquez A, Ruiz-Echarri Zelaya MP, Loris Pablo C, Ferr#{225}ndez Longas A, Tamparillas Salvador M. El sIndrome de Marshall-Smith: a prop#{243}sito de una observad#{243}n personal. An Esp Pediatr 1983; 18:45-50.

- Butler, M.G. (2003). Marshall–Smith syndrome. In: The NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. (pp219–220) Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.

- Charon A, Gillerot T, Van Maldergem L, Van Schaftingen MH, de Bont B, Koulischer L. The Marshall–Smith syndrome. Eur J Pediatr 1990; 150: 54-5.

- Dernedde, G., Pendeville, P., Veyckemans, F., Verellen, G. & Gillerot, Y. (1998). Anaesthetic management of a child with Marshall–Smith syndrome. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 45 (7): 660. Anaesthetic management of a child with Marshall-Smith syndrome

- Diab, M., Raff, M., Gunther, D.F. (2002). Osseous fragility in Marshall–Smith syndrome. Clinical Report: Osseous fragility in Marshall-Smith syndrome

- Ehresmann, T., Gillessen-Kaesbach G., Koenig R. (2005). Late diagnosis of Marshall Smith Syndrome (MSS). In: Medgen 17.

- Hassan M, Sutton T, Mage K, LimalJM, Rappaport R. The syndrome of accelerated bone maturation in the newborn infant with dysmorphism and congenital malformations: (the so-called Marshall–Smith syndrome). Pediatr Radiol 1976; 5:53-57.

- Hoyme HE and Bull MJ: The Marshall-Smith Syndrome: Natural history beyond infancy. Western Society for Pediatric Research, Carmel, California, February, 1987. Clin Res 35:68A, 1987.

- Hoyme HE and Bull MJ: The Marshall-Smith Syndrome: Natural history beyond infancy. David W. Smith Morphogenesis and Malformations Workshop. Greenville, SC, August, 1987. Proceedings of the Greenwood Genetics Center 7:152, 1988.

- Hoyme HE, Byers PH, Guttmacher AE: Marshall–Smith syndrome: Further evidence of an osteochondrodysplasia in long-term survivors. David W. Smith Morphogenesis and Malformations Workshop, Winston-Salem, NC, August, 1992. Proceedings of the Greenwood Genetic Center 12:70, 1993.

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- Tzu-Jou Wang (2002). Marshall–Smith syndrome in a Taiwanese patient with T-cell immunodeficiency. Am J Med Genet Part A;112 (1):107-108.